Background: Cooperative robotics is receiving greater acceptance because the typical advantages provided by manipulators are combined with an intuitive usage. In particular, hands-on robotics may benefit from the adaptation of the assistant behavior with respect to the activity currently performed by the user. A fast and reliable classification of human activities is required, as well as strategies to smoothly modify the control of the manipulator. In this scenario, gesteme-based motion classification is inadequate because it needs the observation of a wide signal percentage and the definition of a rich vocabulary. Objective: In this work, a system able to recognize the user's current activity without a vocabulary of gestemes, and to accordingly adapt the manipulator's dynamic behavior is presented. Methods and material: An underlying stochastic model fits variations in the user's guidance forces and the resulting trajectories of the manipulator's end-effector with a set of Gaussian distribution. The high-level switching between these distributions is captured with hidden Markov models. The dynamic of the KUKA light-weight robot, a torque-controlled manipulator, is modified with respect to the classified activity using sigmoidal-shaped functions. The presented system is validated over a pool of 12 naive users in a scenario that addresses surgical targeting tasks on soft tissue. The robot's assistance is adapted in order to obtain a stiff behavior during activities that require critical accuracy constraint, and higher compliance during wide movements. Both the ability to provide the correct classification at each moment (sample accuracy) and the capability of correctly identify the correct sequence of activity (sequence accuracy) were evaluated. Results: The proposed classifier is fast and accurate in all the experiments conducted (80% sample accuracy after the observation of similar to 450 ms of signal). Moreover, the ability of recognize the correct sequence of activities, without unwanted transitions is guaranteed (sequence accuracy similar to 90% when computed far away from user desired transitions). Finally, the proposed activity-based adaptation of the robot's dynamic does not lead to a not smooth behavior (high smoothness, i.e. normalized jerk score <0.01). Conclusion: The provided system is able to dynamic assist the operator during cooperation in the presented scenario.

Gesteme-free context-aware adaptation of robot behavior in human–robot cooperation

NESSI, FEDERICO;BERETTA, ELISA;FERRIGNO, GIANCARLO;DE MOMI, ELENA
2016

Abstract

Background: Cooperative robotics is receiving greater acceptance because the typical advantages provided by manipulators are combined with an intuitive usage. In particular, hands-on robotics may benefit from the adaptation of the assistant behavior with respect to the activity currently performed by the user. A fast and reliable classification of human activities is required, as well as strategies to smoothly modify the control of the manipulator. In this scenario, gesteme-based motion classification is inadequate because it needs the observation of a wide signal percentage and the definition of a rich vocabulary. Objective: In this work, a system able to recognize the user's current activity without a vocabulary of gestemes, and to accordingly adapt the manipulator's dynamic behavior is presented. Methods and material: An underlying stochastic model fits variations in the user's guidance forces and the resulting trajectories of the manipulator's end-effector with a set of Gaussian distribution. The high-level switching between these distributions is captured with hidden Markov models. The dynamic of the KUKA light-weight robot, a torque-controlled manipulator, is modified with respect to the classified activity using sigmoidal-shaped functions. The presented system is validated over a pool of 12 naive users in a scenario that addresses surgical targeting tasks on soft tissue. The robot's assistance is adapted in order to obtain a stiff behavior during activities that require critical accuracy constraint, and higher compliance during wide movements. Both the ability to provide the correct classification at each moment (sample accuracy) and the capability of correctly identify the correct sequence of activity (sequence accuracy) were evaluated. Results: The proposed classifier is fast and accurate in all the experiments conducted (80% sample accuracy after the observation of similar to 450 ms of signal). Moreover, the ability of recognize the correct sequence of activities, without unwanted transitions is guaranteed (sequence accuracy similar to 90% when computed far away from user desired transitions). Finally, the proposed activity-based adaptation of the robot's dynamic does not lead to a not smooth behavior (high smoothness, i.e. normalized jerk score <0.01). Conclusion: The provided system is able to dynamic assist the operator during cooperation in the presented scenario.
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
Gesteme-free context-aware adaptation.pdf

Accesso riservato

: Publisher’s version
Dimensione 1.79 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
1.79 MB Adobe PDF   Visualizza/Apri
nessi_2016.pdf

accesso aperto

: Post-Print (DRAFT o Author’s Accepted Manuscript-AAM)
Dimensione 2.68 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
2.68 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11311/1006645
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 5
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 4
social impact