In this paper, an instruction-level energy model is proposed for the data-path of very long instruction word (VLIW) pipelined processors that can be used to provide accurate power consumption information during either an instruction-level simulation or power-oriented scheduling at compile time. The analytical model takes into account several software-level parameters (such as instruction ordering, pipeline stall probability, and instruction cache miss probability) as well as microarchitectural-level ones (such as pipeline stage power consumption per instruction) providing an efficient pipeline-aware instruction-level power estimation, whose accuracy is very close to those given by RT or gate-level simulations. The problem of instruction-level power characterization of a K-issue VLIW processor is O(N**2K ) where N is the number of operations in the ISA and K is the number of parallel instructions composing the very long instruction. One of the advantages of the proposed model consists of reducing the complexity of the characterization problem to O( K x N**2). The proposed model has been used to characterize a four-issue VLIW core with a six-stage pipeline, and its accuracy and efficiency has been compared with respect to energy estimates derived by gate-level simulation. Experimental results (carried out on a set of embedded DSP benchmarks) have demonstrated an average error in accuracy of 4.8% of the instruction-level estimation engine with respect to the gate-level engine. The average simulation speed-up of the instruction-level power estimation engine with respect to the gate-level engine is of four orders of magnitude approximately.

An Instruction-Level Energy Model for Embedded VLIW Architectures

SAMI, MARIAGIOVANNA;SCIUTO, DONATELLA;SILVANO, CRISTINA;ZACCARIA, VITTORIO
2002-01-01

Abstract

In this paper, an instruction-level energy model is proposed for the data-path of very long instruction word (VLIW) pipelined processors that can be used to provide accurate power consumption information during either an instruction-level simulation or power-oriented scheduling at compile time. The analytical model takes into account several software-level parameters (such as instruction ordering, pipeline stall probability, and instruction cache miss probability) as well as microarchitectural-level ones (such as pipeline stage power consumption per instruction) providing an efficient pipeline-aware instruction-level power estimation, whose accuracy is very close to those given by RT or gate-level simulations. The problem of instruction-level power characterization of a K-issue VLIW processor is O(N**2K ) where N is the number of operations in the ISA and K is the number of parallel instructions composing the very long instruction. One of the advantages of the proposed model consists of reducing the complexity of the characterization problem to O( K x N**2). The proposed model has been used to characterize a four-issue VLIW core with a six-stage pipeline, and its accuracy and efficiency has been compared with respect to energy estimates derived by gate-level simulation. Experimental results (carried out on a set of embedded DSP benchmarks) have demonstrated an average error in accuracy of 4.8% of the instruction-level estimation engine with respect to the gate-level engine. The average simulation speed-up of the instruction-level power estimation engine with respect to the gate-level engine is of four orders of magnitude approximately.
VLIW Processors; Instruction Set Simulators; Energy-Models
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
TCAD02_01028101.pdf

Accesso riservato

: Post-Print (DRAFT o Author’s Accepted Manuscript-AAM)
Dimensione 368.06 kB
Formato Adobe PDF
368.06 kB Adobe PDF   Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11311/557164
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 33
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 19
social impact