Water accumulation is a major problem in the flow assurance of gas pipelines. To limit liquid loading issues, deliquification by means of surfactant injection is a promising alternative to the consolidated mechanical methods. However, the macroscopic behavior of foam pipe flow in the presence of other phases has barely been explored. The goal of this work was to propose an approach to simulate air–water–foam flows in horizontal pipes using OLGA by Schlumberger, an industry standard tool for the transient simulation of multiphase flow. The simulation results were compared with experimental data for 60 mm and 30 mm ID (Inner Diameter) horizontal pipelines. Preliminary validation for two-phase air–water flow was carried out, which showed that correct flow pattern recognition is essential to accurately reproduce the experimental data. Then, stratified air–foam–water flows were investigated, assuming different models for the foam local velocity distribution. Foam rheology was considered through the Herschel–Bulkley model with the yield stress varying in time due to foam decay. The results showed good agreement for a uniform velocity profile and fresh foam properties in the case of the 60 mm ID pipeline, whereas for the 30 mm ID, which was characterized by significantly higher velocities, a linear velocity profile and 2000 s foam aging provided the best agreement. In both cases, the pressure gradient was overestimated, and the mean absolute prediction error ranged from about 5% to 30%.

Horizontal Stratified Air–Foam–Water Flows: Preliminary Modelling Attempts with OLGA

Ferretto, William;Carraretto, Igor Matteo;Colombo, Luigi Pietro Maria
2023-01-01

Abstract

Water accumulation is a major problem in the flow assurance of gas pipelines. To limit liquid loading issues, deliquification by means of surfactant injection is a promising alternative to the consolidated mechanical methods. However, the macroscopic behavior of foam pipe flow in the presence of other phases has barely been explored. The goal of this work was to propose an approach to simulate air–water–foam flows in horizontal pipes using OLGA by Schlumberger, an industry standard tool for the transient simulation of multiphase flow. The simulation results were compared with experimental data for 60 mm and 30 mm ID (Inner Diameter) horizontal pipelines. Preliminary validation for two-phase air–water flow was carried out, which showed that correct flow pattern recognition is essential to accurately reproduce the experimental data. Then, stratified air–foam–water flows were investigated, assuming different models for the foam local velocity distribution. Foam rheology was considered through the Herschel–Bulkley model with the yield stress varying in time due to foam decay. The results showed good agreement for a uniform velocity profile and fresh foam properties in the case of the 60 mm ID pipeline, whereas for the 30 mm ID, which was characterized by significantly higher velocities, a linear velocity profile and 2000 s foam aging provided the best agreement. In both cases, the pressure gradient was overestimated, and the mean absolute prediction error ranged from about 5% to 30%.
2023
foam; multiphase flow; pressure gradient; transient multiphase simulator
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11311/1230987
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