Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) has become an established technology to interconnect a human brain and an external device. One of the most popular protocols for BCI is based on the extraction of the so-called P300 wave from electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. P300 wave is an event-related potential with a latency of 300 ms after the onset of a rare stimulus. In this paper, we used deep learning architectures, namely convolutional neural networks (CNNs), to improve P300-based BCIs. We propose a novel BCI classifier, called P3CNET, that improved P300 classification accuracy performances of the best state-of-the-art classifier. In addition, we explored pre-processing and training choices that improved the usability of BCI systems. For the pre-processing of EEG data, we explored the optimal signal interval that would improve classification accuracies. Then, we explored the minimum number of calibration sessions to balance higher accuracy and shorter calibration time. To improve the explainability of deep learning architectures, we analyzed the saliency maps of the input EEG signal leading to a correct P300 classification, and we observed that the elimination of less informative electrode channels from the data did not result in better accuracy. All the methodologies and explorations were performed and validated on two different CNN classifiers, demonstrating the generalizability of the obtained results. Finally, we showed the advantages given by transfer learning when using the proposed novel architecture on other P300 datasets. The presented architectures and practical suggestions can be used by BCI practitioners to improve its effectiveness.

Leveraging Deep Learning Techniques to Improve P300-Based Brain Computer Interfaces

Dag I.;Dui L. G.;Ferrante S.;Pedrocchi A.;Antonietti A.
2022-01-01

Abstract

Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) has become an established technology to interconnect a human brain and an external device. One of the most popular protocols for BCI is based on the extraction of the so-called P300 wave from electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. P300 wave is an event-related potential with a latency of 300 ms after the onset of a rare stimulus. In this paper, we used deep learning architectures, namely convolutional neural networks (CNNs), to improve P300-based BCIs. We propose a novel BCI classifier, called P3CNET, that improved P300 classification accuracy performances of the best state-of-the-art classifier. In addition, we explored pre-processing and training choices that improved the usability of BCI systems. For the pre-processing of EEG data, we explored the optimal signal interval that would improve classification accuracies. Then, we explored the minimum number of calibration sessions to balance higher accuracy and shorter calibration time. To improve the explainability of deep learning architectures, we analyzed the saliency maps of the input EEG signal leading to a correct P300 classification, and we observed that the elimination of less informative electrode channels from the data did not result in better accuracy. All the methodologies and explorations were performed and validated on two different CNN classifiers, demonstrating the generalizability of the obtained results. Finally, we showed the advantages given by transfer learning when using the proposed novel architecture on other P300 datasets. The presented architectures and practical suggestions can be used by BCI practitioners to improve its effectiveness.
2022
Artificial intelligence
Brain modeling
Electrodes
Electroencephalography
Solid modeling
Task analysis
Training
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11311/1227448
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