The mechanism for the functionalization of graphene layers with pyrrole compounds was investigated. Liquid 1,2,5-trimethylpyrrole (TMP) was heated in air in the presence of a high surface area nanosized graphite (HSAG), at temperatures between 80°C and 180°C. After the thermal treatments solid and liquid samples, separated by centrifugation, were analysed by means of Raman, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-Rays Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). FT-IR spectra were interpreted with the support of Density Functional Theory (DFT) quantum chemical modelling. Raman findings suggested that the bulk structure of HSAG remained substantially unaltered, without intercalation products. FT-IR and XPS spectra showed the presence of oxidized TMP derivatives on the solid adducts, in a much larger amount than in the liquid. For thermal treatments at T ≥ 150°C, IR spectral features revealed not only the presence of oxidized products but also the reaction of intra-annular double bond of TMP with HSAG. XPS spectroscopy showed the increase of the ratio between C(sp2)N bonds involved in the aromatic system and C(sp3)N bonds, resulting from reaction of the pyrrole moiety, observed while increasing the temperature from 130°C to 180°C. All these findings, supported by modeling, led to hypothesize a cascade reaction involving a carbocatalyzed oxidation of the pyrrole compound followed by Diels-Alder cycloaddition. Graphene layers play a twofold role: at the early stages of the reaction, they behave as a catalyst for the oxidation of TMP and then they become the substrate for the cycloaddition reaction. Such sustainable functionalization, which does not produce by-products, allows us to use the pyrrole compounds for decorating sp2 carbon allotropes without altering their bulk structure and smooths the path for their wider application.

Domino reaction for the sustainable functionalization of few-layer graphene

Barbera, Vincenzina;Brambilla, Luigi;Milani, Alberto;Palazzolo, Alberto;Castiglioni, Chiara;BONGIOVANNI, ROBERTA MARIA;Galimberti, Maurizio
2019

Abstract

The mechanism for the functionalization of graphene layers with pyrrole compounds was investigated. Liquid 1,2,5-trimethylpyrrole (TMP) was heated in air in the presence of a high surface area nanosized graphite (HSAG), at temperatures between 80°C and 180°C. After the thermal treatments solid and liquid samples, separated by centrifugation, were analysed by means of Raman, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-Rays Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). FT-IR spectra were interpreted with the support of Density Functional Theory (DFT) quantum chemical modelling. Raman findings suggested that the bulk structure of HSAG remained substantially unaltered, without intercalation products. FT-IR and XPS spectra showed the presence of oxidized TMP derivatives on the solid adducts, in a much larger amount than in the liquid. For thermal treatments at T ≥ 150°C, IR spectral features revealed not only the presence of oxidized products but also the reaction of intra-annular double bond of TMP with HSAG. XPS spectroscopy showed the increase of the ratio between C(sp2)N bonds involved in the aromatic system and C(sp3)N bonds, resulting from reaction of the pyrrole moiety, observed while increasing the temperature from 130°C to 180°C. All these findings, supported by modeling, led to hypothesize a cascade reaction involving a carbocatalyzed oxidation of the pyrrole compound followed by Diels-Alder cycloaddition. Graphene layers play a twofold role: at the early stages of the reaction, they behave as a catalyst for the oxidation of TMP and then they become the substrate for the cycloaddition reaction. Such sustainable functionalization, which does not produce by-products, allows us to use the pyrrole compounds for decorating sp2 carbon allotropes without altering their bulk structure and smooths the path for their wider application.
Density functional theory; Functional groups; Graphene layers; Infrared spectroscopy; Pyrrole compounds; Quantum chemical modelling; Chemical Engineering (all); Materials Science (all)
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11311/1078160
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