Silicon single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) are nowadays a solid-state alternative to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) in single-photon counting (SPC) and time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) over the visible spectral range up to 1-mum wavelength. SPADs implemented in planar technology compatible with CMOS circuits offer typical advantages of microelectronic devices (small size, ruggedness, low voltage, low power, etc.). Furthermore, they have inherently higher photon detection efficiency, since they do not rely on electron emission in vacuum from a photocathode as do PMTs, but instead on the internal photoelectric effect. However, PMTs offer much wider sensitive area, which greatly simplifies the design of optical systems; they also attain remarkable performance at high counting rate, and offer picosecond timing resolution with microchannel plate models. In order to make SPAD detectors more competitive in a broader range of SPC and TCSPC applications, it is necessary to face several issues in the semiconductor device design and technology. Such issues will be discussed in the context of the two possible approaches to such a challenge: employing a standard industrial high-voltage CMOS technology or developing a dedicated CMOS-compatible technology. Advances recently attained in the development of SPAD detectors will be outlined and discussed with reference to both single-element detectors and integrated detector arrays.

Progress in Silicon Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes

GHIONI, MASSIMO ANTONIO;GULINATTI, ANGELO;RECH, IVAN;ZAPPA, FRANCO;COVA, SERGIO
2007

Abstract

Silicon single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) are nowadays a solid-state alternative to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) in single-photon counting (SPC) and time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) over the visible spectral range up to 1-mum wavelength. SPADs implemented in planar technology compatible with CMOS circuits offer typical advantages of microelectronic devices (small size, ruggedness, low voltage, low power, etc.). Furthermore, they have inherently higher photon detection efficiency, since they do not rely on electron emission in vacuum from a photocathode as do PMTs, but instead on the internal photoelectric effect. However, PMTs offer much wider sensitive area, which greatly simplifies the design of optical systems; they also attain remarkable performance at high counting rate, and offer picosecond timing resolution with microchannel plate models. In order to make SPAD detectors more competitive in a broader range of SPC and TCSPC applications, it is necessary to face several issues in the semiconductor device design and technology. Such issues will be discussed in the context of the two possible approaches to such a challenge: employing a standard industrial high-voltage CMOS technology or developing a dedicated CMOS-compatible technology. Advances recently attained in the development of SPAD detectors will be outlined and discussed with reference to both single-element detectors and integrated detector arrays.
sezele; array detectors; photon counting; photon timing; single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs); time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC)
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11311/552310
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