The aim of the paper is to define a limit performance of highly efficient battery electric quadricycles for urban mobility. The vehicle is employed for an energy efficiency competition in which urban concepts compete. A multi-physics (thermo-electro-mechanical) Tank To Wheels (TTW) model has been developed and validated. Given the information on the track route (track map and elevation) and on the throttle input command, the model computes the vehicle power demand and cruising speed. The model is validated by means of both indoor and outdoor experimental tests. The validated model is employed for the optimization of the transmission gear ratio and of the driving strategy to minimize the overall energy consumption on a given track. Design variables are related to the transmission gear ratio and to the throttle command profile. The algorithm aims to minimize the energy consumption, including constraints on the maximum current provided by the battery and on the maximum time available to complete the lap. Comparison with some common driving strategies confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed solution, with a foreseen 9% reduction of the vehicle overall energy demand. The single seater ultra-efficient electric vehicle, compared to other urban quadricycles, has a battery capacity ten times lower and a 50% longer driving range.

A Lightweight Ultra-Efficient Electric Vehicle Multi-Physics Modeling and Driving Strategy Optimization

Ballo, F;Stabile, P;Gobbi, M;Mastinu, G
2022-01-01

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to define a limit performance of highly efficient battery electric quadricycles for urban mobility. The vehicle is employed for an energy efficiency competition in which urban concepts compete. A multi-physics (thermo-electro-mechanical) Tank To Wheels (TTW) model has been developed and validated. Given the information on the track route (track map and elevation) and on the throttle input command, the model computes the vehicle power demand and cruising speed. The model is validated by means of both indoor and outdoor experimental tests. The validated model is employed for the optimization of the transmission gear ratio and of the driving strategy to minimize the overall energy consumption on a given track. Design variables are related to the transmission gear ratio and to the throttle command profile. The algorithm aims to minimize the energy consumption, including constraints on the maximum current provided by the battery and on the maximum time available to complete the lap. Comparison with some common driving strategies confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed solution, with a foreseen 9% reduction of the vehicle overall energy demand. The single seater ultra-efficient electric vehicle, compared to other urban quadricycles, has a battery capacity ten times lower and a 50% longer driving range.
2022
Batteries
Mathematical models
Optimization
Computational modeling
Mechanical power transmission
Integrated circuit modeling
Tires
Eco-driving
electric vehicle
evolutionary optimization
multi-physics model
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11311/1221038
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