Polyurethane nanocomposites were prepared with a nanosized high surface area graphite (HSAG) functionalized on its edges with hydroxyl groups as a building block. Edge functionalization of HSAG was obtained through reaction with KOH. The addition of OH groups was demonstrated by means of infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and the Boehm titration allowed estimation of a level of about 5.0 mmolOH/gHSAG. Results from wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and Raman spectroscopy suggested that functionalization of the graphene layers occurred on the edges. The evaluation of the Hansen solubility parameters of G-OH revealed a substantial increase of δP and δH parameters with respect to HSAG. In line with these findings, homogeneous and stable dispersions of G-OH in a polyol were obtained. PU were prepared by mixing a dispersion of G-OH in cis-1,4-butenediol with hexamethylene diisocyanate. A model reaction between catechol, 1,4-butanediol, and hexamethylene diisocyanate demonstrated the reactivity of hydroxylated aromatic rings with iso-cyanate groups. PU-based G-OH, characterized with WAXD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), revealed lower Tg, higher Tc, Tm, and crystallinity than PU without G-OH. These results could be due to the higher flexibility of the polymer chains, likely a consequence of the dilution of the urethane bonds by the carbon substrate. Hence, G-OH allowed the preparation of PU with a larger temperature range between Tg and Tm, with potential positive impact on material applications. The model reaction between butylisocyanate and 1-butanol revealed that HSAG and G-OH promote efficient formation of the urethane bond, even in the absence of a catalyst. The effect of high surface area carbon on the nu-cleophilic oxygen attack to the isocyanate group can be hypothesized. The results here reported lead us to comment that a reactive nanosized sp2 carbon allotrope, such as G-OH, can be used as a multifunc-tional building block of PU. Indeed, G-OH is a comonomer of PU, a promoter of the polymerization reaction, and can definitely act as reinforcing filler by tuning its amount in the final nanocomposite leading to highly versatile materials. The larger temperature range between Tg and Tm, together with the presence of G-OH acting as a reinforcing agent, could allow the production of piezoresistive sensing, shape-memory PU with good mechanical features.

Polyhydroxylated Nanosized Graphite as Multifunctional Building Block for Polyurethanes

Rubino L.;Torrisi G.;Brambilla L.;Rubino L.;Galimberti M.;Barbera V.
2022

Abstract

Polyurethane nanocomposites were prepared with a nanosized high surface area graphite (HSAG) functionalized on its edges with hydroxyl groups as a building block. Edge functionalization of HSAG was obtained through reaction with KOH. The addition of OH groups was demonstrated by means of infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and the Boehm titration allowed estimation of a level of about 5.0 mmolOH/gHSAG. Results from wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and Raman spectroscopy suggested that functionalization of the graphene layers occurred on the edges. The evaluation of the Hansen solubility parameters of G-OH revealed a substantial increase of δP and δH parameters with respect to HSAG. In line with these findings, homogeneous and stable dispersions of G-OH in a polyol were obtained. PU were prepared by mixing a dispersion of G-OH in cis-1,4-butenediol with hexamethylene diisocyanate. A model reaction between catechol, 1,4-butanediol, and hexamethylene diisocyanate demonstrated the reactivity of hydroxylated aromatic rings with iso-cyanate groups. PU-based G-OH, characterized with WAXD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), revealed lower Tg, higher Tc, Tm, and crystallinity than PU without G-OH. These results could be due to the higher flexibility of the polymer chains, likely a consequence of the dilution of the urethane bonds by the carbon substrate. Hence, G-OH allowed the preparation of PU with a larger temperature range between Tg and Tm, with potential positive impact on material applications. The model reaction between butylisocyanate and 1-butanol revealed that HSAG and G-OH promote efficient formation of the urethane bond, even in the absence of a catalyst. The effect of high surface area carbon on the nu-cleophilic oxygen attack to the isocyanate group can be hypothesized. The results here reported lead us to comment that a reactive nanosized sp2 carbon allotrope, such as G-OH, can be used as a multifunc-tional building block of PU. Indeed, G-OH is a comonomer of PU, a promoter of the polymerization reaction, and can definitely act as reinforcing filler by tuning its amount in the final nanocomposite leading to highly versatile materials. The larger temperature range between Tg and Tm, together with the presence of G-OH acting as a reinforcing agent, could allow the production of piezoresistive sensing, shape-memory PU with good mechanical features.
carbocatalysis
graphene layers
polymer
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11311/1210735
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