The digital implementation of a nonlinear audio circuit often employs the Newton-Raphson (NR) method for solving the corresponding system of implicit ordinary differential equations in the discrete-time domain. Although its quadratic convergence speed makes NR attractive for real-time audio applications, quadratic convergence is not always guaranteed, since it depends on initial conditions, and also divergence might occur. For this reason, especially in the context of Virtual Analog modeling, techniques for increasing the robustness of NR are in order. Among the various approaches, the Wave Digital (WD) formalism recently showed potential to rethink traditional circuit simulation methods. In this manuscript, we discuss an original formulation of the NR method in the WD domain for the solution of audio circuits with multiple one-port nonlinearities. We provide an in-depth theoretical analysis of the proposed iterative method and we show how its quadratic convergence strongly depends on the free parameters (called port resistances) introduced when modeling the reference circuit in the WD domain. In particular, we demonstrate that the size of the basin where the WD NR solver can be initialized to converge on a solution with quadratic speed is a function of the free parameters. We also show that by setting each port resistance value as close as possible to the derivative w.r.t. current of the nonlinear element v-i characteristic we keep the basin size large. We finally implement an audio ring modulator circuit with four diodes in order to test the proposed iterative method.

### A Wave Digital Newton-Raphson Method for Virtual Analog Modeling of Audio Circuits with Multiple One-Port Nonlinearities

#### Abstract

The digital implementation of a nonlinear audio circuit often employs the Newton-Raphson (NR) method for solving the corresponding system of implicit ordinary differential equations in the discrete-time domain. Although its quadratic convergence speed makes NR attractive for real-time audio applications, quadratic convergence is not always guaranteed, since it depends on initial conditions, and also divergence might occur. For this reason, especially in the context of Virtual Analog modeling, techniques for increasing the robustness of NR are in order. Among the various approaches, the Wave Digital (WD) formalism recently showed potential to rethink traditional circuit simulation methods. In this manuscript, we discuss an original formulation of the NR method in the WD domain for the solution of audio circuits with multiple one-port nonlinearities. We provide an in-depth theoretical analysis of the proposed iterative method and we show how its quadratic convergence strongly depends on the free parameters (called port resistances) introduced when modeling the reference circuit in the WD domain. In particular, we demonstrate that the size of the basin where the WD NR solver can be initialized to converge on a solution with quadratic speed is a function of the free parameters. We also show that by setting each port resistance value as close as possible to the derivative w.r.t. current of the nonlinear element v-i characteristic we keep the basin size large. We finally implement an audio ring modulator circuit with four diodes in order to test the proposed iterative method.
##### Scheda breve Scheda completa Scheda completa (DC)
2021
newton-raphson method
nonlinear audio circuits
ring modulator
virtual analog modeling
Wave digital filters
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: `https://hdl.handle.net/11311/1203185`