Direct velocity measurements in a non-ideal expanding flow of a high temperature organic vapor were performed for the first time using the laser Doppler velocimetry technique. To this purpose, a novel seeding system for insemination of high-temperature vapors was specifically conceived, designed, and implemented. Comparisons with indirectly measured velocity, namely inferred from pressure and temperature measurements, are also provided. Nozzle flows of hexamethyldisiloxane (MM, C6H18OSi2) at temperature up to 220∘C and pressure up to 10 bar were taken as representative of non-ideal compressible-fluid flows. The relative high temperature, high pressure and the need of avoiding contamination pose strong constraints on the choice of both seeding system design and tracer particle, which is solid. A liquid suspension of tracer particles in hexamethyldisiloxane is injected through an atomizing nozzle in a high-temperature settling chamber ahead of the test section. The spray droplets evaporate, while the particles are entrained in the flow to be traced. Three different test cases are presented: a subsonic compressible nozzle flow with a large uniform region at Mach number 0.7, a high velocity gradient supersonic flow at Mach number 1.4 and a near-zero velocity gradient flow at Mach number 1.7. Temperature, pressure and direct velocity measurements are performed to characterize the flow. Measured velocity is compared with both computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations and velocity computed from pressure and temperature measurements. In both cases, the thermodynamic model applied was a state-of-the-art Helmoltz energy equation of state. A maximum velocity deviation of 6.6% was found for both CFD simulations and computed velocity. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].

Direct velocity measurements in high-temperature non-ideal vapor flows

Gallarini S.;Cozzi F.;Spinelli A.;Guardone A.
2021-01-01

Abstract

Direct velocity measurements in a non-ideal expanding flow of a high temperature organic vapor were performed for the first time using the laser Doppler velocimetry technique. To this purpose, a novel seeding system for insemination of high-temperature vapors was specifically conceived, designed, and implemented. Comparisons with indirectly measured velocity, namely inferred from pressure and temperature measurements, are also provided. Nozzle flows of hexamethyldisiloxane (MM, C6H18OSi2) at temperature up to 220∘C and pressure up to 10 bar were taken as representative of non-ideal compressible-fluid flows. The relative high temperature, high pressure and the need of avoiding contamination pose strong constraints on the choice of both seeding system design and tracer particle, which is solid. A liquid suspension of tracer particles in hexamethyldisiloxane is injected through an atomizing nozzle in a high-temperature settling chamber ahead of the test section. The spray droplets evaporate, while the particles are entrained in the flow to be traced. Three different test cases are presented: a subsonic compressible nozzle flow with a large uniform region at Mach number 0.7, a high velocity gradient supersonic flow at Mach number 1.4 and a near-zero velocity gradient flow at Mach number 1.7. Temperature, pressure and direct velocity measurements are performed to characterize the flow. Measured velocity is compared with both computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations and velocity computed from pressure and temperature measurements. In both cases, the thermodynamic model applied was a state-of-the-art Helmoltz energy equation of state. A maximum velocity deviation of 6.6% was found for both CFD simulations and computed velocity. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].
Laser Doppler Velocimetry; Nozzle flows; Supersonic flows; Organic Rakine cycles; Non-ideal compressible fluid dynamics; Hexamethyldisiloxane;
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11311/1185865
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