Cellulose represents a low cost, abundant, and renewable polysaccharide with great versatility; it has a hierarchical structure composed of nanofibers with high aspect ratio (3–4 nm wide, hundreds of µm long). TEMPO-mediated oxidation represents one of the most diffused methods to obtain cellulose nanofibers (CNFs): It is possible to obtain physically crosslinked hydrogels by means of divalent cation addition. The presence of inorganic components, such as calcium phosphates (CaP), can improve not only their mechanical properties but also the bioactivity of the gels. The aim of this work is to design and characterize a TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (TOCNFs) injectable hydrogel embedded with inorganic particles, CaP and CaP-GO, for bone tissue regeneration. Inorganic particles act as physical crosslinkers, as proven by rheological characterization, which reported an increase in mechanical properties. The average load value registered in injection tests was in the range of 1.5–4.4 N, far below 30 N, considered a reasonable injection force upper limit. Samples were stable for up to 28 days and both CaP and CaP-GO accelerate mineralization as suggested by SEM and XRD analysis. No cytotoxic effects were shown on SAOS-2 cells cultured with eluates. This work demonstrated that the physicochemical properties of TOCNFs-based dispersions could be enhanced and modulated through the addition of the inorganic phases, maintaining the injectability and bioactivity of the hydrogels.

Bioactive hydrogels: Design and characterization of cellulose-derived injectable composites

Fiorati A.;Linciano C.;Galante C.;Altomare L.
2021

Abstract

Cellulose represents a low cost, abundant, and renewable polysaccharide with great versatility; it has a hierarchical structure composed of nanofibers with high aspect ratio (3–4 nm wide, hundreds of µm long). TEMPO-mediated oxidation represents one of the most diffused methods to obtain cellulose nanofibers (CNFs): It is possible to obtain physically crosslinked hydrogels by means of divalent cation addition. The presence of inorganic components, such as calcium phosphates (CaP), can improve not only their mechanical properties but also the bioactivity of the gels. The aim of this work is to design and characterize a TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (TOCNFs) injectable hydrogel embedded with inorganic particles, CaP and CaP-GO, for bone tissue regeneration. Inorganic particles act as physical crosslinkers, as proven by rheological characterization, which reported an increase in mechanical properties. The average load value registered in injection tests was in the range of 1.5–4.4 N, far below 30 N, considered a reasonable injection force upper limit. Samples were stable for up to 28 days and both CaP and CaP-GO accelerate mineralization as suggested by SEM and XRD analysis. No cytotoxic effects were shown on SAOS-2 cells cultured with eluates. This work demonstrated that the physicochemical properties of TOCNFs-based dispersions could be enhanced and modulated through the addition of the inorganic phases, maintaining the injectability and bioactivity of the hydrogels.
Biocomposite
Hydrogel
Hydroxylapatite
Mineralization
TEMPO-oxidized nanocellulose
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11311/1183835
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