The foreseen uptake of hydrogen mobility is a fundamental step towards the decarbonization of the transport sector. Under such premises, both refueling infrastructure and vehicles should be deployed together with improved refueling protocols. Several studies focus on refueling the light-duty vehicles with 10 kgH2 up to 700 bar, however less known effort is reported for refueling heavy-duty vehicles with 30–40 kgH2 at 350 bar. The present study illustrates the application of a lumped model to a fuel cell bus tank-to-tank refueling event, tailored upon the real data acquired in the 3Emotion Project. The evolution of the main refueling quantities, such as pressure, temperature, and mass flow, are predicted dynamically throughout the refueling process, as a function of the operating parameters, within the safety limits imposed by SAE J2601/2 technical standard. The results show to refuel the vehicle tank from half to full capacity with an Average Pressure Ramp Rate (APRR) equal to 0.03 MPa/s are needed about 10 min. Furthermore, it is found that the effect of varying the initial vehicle tank pressure is more significant than changing the ambient temperature on the refueling performances. In conclusion, the analysis of the effect of different APRR, from 0.03 to 0.1 MPa/s, indicate that is possible to safely reduce the duration of half-to-full refueling by 62% increasing the APRR value from 0.03 to 0.08 MPa/s.

Thermodynamic modeling of hydrogen refueling for heavy-duty fuel cell buses and comparison with aggregated real data

Valenti G.;
2021-01-01

Abstract

The foreseen uptake of hydrogen mobility is a fundamental step towards the decarbonization of the transport sector. Under such premises, both refueling infrastructure and vehicles should be deployed together with improved refueling protocols. Several studies focus on refueling the light-duty vehicles with 10 kgH2 up to 700 bar, however less known effort is reported for refueling heavy-duty vehicles with 30–40 kgH2 at 350 bar. The present study illustrates the application of a lumped model to a fuel cell bus tank-to-tank refueling event, tailored upon the real data acquired in the 3Emotion Project. The evolution of the main refueling quantities, such as pressure, temperature, and mass flow, are predicted dynamically throughout the refueling process, as a function of the operating parameters, within the safety limits imposed by SAE J2601/2 technical standard. The results show to refuel the vehicle tank from half to full capacity with an Average Pressure Ramp Rate (APRR) equal to 0.03 MPa/s are needed about 10 min. Furthermore, it is found that the effect of varying the initial vehicle tank pressure is more significant than changing the ambient temperature on the refueling performances. In conclusion, the analysis of the effect of different APRR, from 0.03 to 0.1 MPa/s, indicate that is possible to safely reduce the duration of half-to-full refueling by 62% increasing the APRR value from 0.03 to 0.08 MPa/s.
2021
APRR
Heavy-duty
Hydrogen refueling protocol
Hydrogen refueling station
Thermodynamic modeling
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11311/1172307
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