Nowadays, Lithium-ion batteries are widely used in advanced technological devices and Electric and Hybrid Vehicles, due to their high energy density for weight, reduced memory effect and significant number of supported charging/discharging cycles. As a consequence, the production and the use of Lithium-ion batteries will continuously increase in the near future, focusing the global attention on their End-of-Life management. Unfortunately, wasted Lithium-ion batteries treatments are still under development, far from the optimization of recycling processes and technologies, and currently recycling represents the only alternative for the social, economic and environmental sustainability of this market, able to minimize toxicity of End-of-Life products, to create a monetary gain and to lead to the independence from foreign resources or critical materials. This paper analyses the current alternatives for the recycling of Lithium-ion batteries, specifically focusing on available procedures for batteries securing and discharging, mechanical pre-treatments and materials recovery processes (i.e. pyro- and hydrometallurgical), and it highlights the pros and cons of treatments in terms of energy consumption, recovery efficiency and safety issues. Target metals (e.g. Cobalt, Nickel and Lithium) are listed and prioritized, and the economic advantage deriving by the material recovery is outlined. An in-depth literature review was conducted, analysing the existing industrial processes, to show the on-going technological solutions proposed by research projects and industrial developments, comparing best results and open issues and criticalities.

Lithium-ion batteries towards circular economy: A literature review of opportunities and issues of recycling treatments

Mossali E.;Picone N.;Gentilini L.;Colledani M.
2020

Abstract

Nowadays, Lithium-ion batteries are widely used in advanced technological devices and Electric and Hybrid Vehicles, due to their high energy density for weight, reduced memory effect and significant number of supported charging/discharging cycles. As a consequence, the production and the use of Lithium-ion batteries will continuously increase in the near future, focusing the global attention on their End-of-Life management. Unfortunately, wasted Lithium-ion batteries treatments are still under development, far from the optimization of recycling processes and technologies, and currently recycling represents the only alternative for the social, economic and environmental sustainability of this market, able to minimize toxicity of End-of-Life products, to create a monetary gain and to lead to the independence from foreign resources or critical materials. This paper analyses the current alternatives for the recycling of Lithium-ion batteries, specifically focusing on available procedures for batteries securing and discharging, mechanical pre-treatments and materials recovery processes (i.e. pyro- and hydrometallurgical), and it highlights the pros and cons of treatments in terms of energy consumption, recovery efficiency and safety issues. Target metals (e.g. Cobalt, Nickel and Lithium) are listed and prioritized, and the economic advantage deriving by the material recovery is outlined. An in-depth literature review was conducted, analysing the existing industrial processes, to show the on-going technological solutions proposed by research projects and industrial developments, comparing best results and open issues and criticalities.
Battery recycling; Circular economy; End-of-life battery; Industrial processes; Lithium-ion battery; Waste treatments; Ions; Metals; Recycling; Electric Power Supplies; Lithium
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11311/1136518
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