With the recent advances in quantum computing, code-based cryptography is foreseen to be one of the few mathematical solutions to design quantum resistant public-key cryptosystems. The binary polynomial multiplication dominates the computational time of the primitives in such cryptosystems, thus the design of efficient multipliers is crucial to optimize the performance of post-quantum public-key cryptographic solutions. This manuscript presents a flexible template architecture for the hardware implementation of large binary polynomial multipliers. The architecture combines the iterative application of the Karatsuba algorithm, to minimize the number of required partial products, with the Comba algorithm, used to optimize the schedule of their computations. In particular, the proposed multiplier architecture supports operands in the order of dozens of thousands of bits, and it offers a wide range of performance-resources trade-offs that is made independent from the size of the input operands. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our solution, we employed the nine configurations of the LEDAcrypt public-key cryptosystem as representative use cases for large-degree binary polynomial multiplications. For each configuration we showed that our template architecture can deliver a performance-optimized multiplier implementation for each FPGA of the Xilinx Artix-7 mid-range family. The experimental validation performed by implementing our multiplier for all the LEDAcrypt configurations on the Artix-7 12 and 200 FPGAs, i.e., the smallest and the largest devices of the Artix-7 family, demonstrated an average performance gain of 3.6x and 33.3x with respect to an optimized software implementation employing the gf2x C library.

Flexible and scalable FPGA-oriented design of multipliers for large binary polynomials

Davide Zoni;Andrea Galimberti;William Fornaciari
2020

Abstract

With the recent advances in quantum computing, code-based cryptography is foreseen to be one of the few mathematical solutions to design quantum resistant public-key cryptosystems. The binary polynomial multiplication dominates the computational time of the primitives in such cryptosystems, thus the design of efficient multipliers is crucial to optimize the performance of post-quantum public-key cryptographic solutions. This manuscript presents a flexible template architecture for the hardware implementation of large binary polynomial multipliers. The architecture combines the iterative application of the Karatsuba algorithm, to minimize the number of required partial products, with the Comba algorithm, used to optimize the schedule of their computations. In particular, the proposed multiplier architecture supports operands in the order of dozens of thousands of bits, and it offers a wide range of performance-resources trade-offs that is made independent from the size of the input operands. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our solution, we employed the nine configurations of the LEDAcrypt public-key cryptosystem as representative use cases for large-degree binary polynomial multiplications. For each configuration we showed that our template architecture can deliver a performance-optimized multiplier implementation for each FPGA of the Xilinx Artix-7 mid-range family. The experimental validation performed by implementing our multiplier for all the LEDAcrypt configurations on the Artix-7 12 and 200 FPGAs, i.e., the smallest and the largest devices of the Artix-7 family, demonstrated an average performance gain of 3.6x and 33.3x with respect to an optimized software implementation employing the gf2x C library.
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
IEEE_Access2020FINAL_Article.pdf

accesso aperto

Descrizione: camera ready
: Pre-Print (o Pre-Refereeing)
Dimensione 9.77 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
9.77 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri
IEEEAccess_FPGA_Mul.pdf

accesso aperto

Descrizione: versione pubblicata
: Publisher’s version
Dimensione 856.82 kB
Formato Adobe PDF
856.82 kB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11311/1135123
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 10
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 7
social impact