Direct drive permanent magnet generators are the most powerful and reliable alternative for kinetic-to-electrical energy conversion in wind turbines. The magnetic rotor is made of a metallic alloy containing neodymium, dysprosium and praseodymium, three rare-earth elements. The 2010 price bubble of rare-earth oxides increased the notoriety of these materials, which came out to be very impacting on the environment of the producing countries. Nevertheless, the great performances related to the use of these materials result in an environmental trade-off between the production and use phase. To make clarity on the subject, we critically review the literature on Life Cycle Assessments of wind turbines including rare-earths in the material inventory.
|Titolo:||Assessing the use of neodymium alloys in wind turbines from a Life Cycle Assessment perspective: a literature review|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2018|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||04.1 Contributo in Atti di convegno|