Background: The influence of pressure strategies to promote lung aeration at birth on the subsequent physiological response to exogenous surfactant therapy has not been investigated. Objectives: To compare the effect of sustained inflation (SI) and a dynamic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) manoeuvre at birth on the subsequent physiological response to exogenous surfactant therapy in preterm lambs. Methods: Steroid-exposed preterm lambs (124-127 days' gestation; n=71) were randomly assigned from birth to either (1) positive-pressure ventilation (PPV) with no recruitment manoeuvre; (2) SI until stable aeration; or (3) 3 min dynamic stepwise PEEP strategy (maximum 14-20 cmH2O; dynamic PEEP (DynPEEP)), followed by PPV for 60 min using a standardised protocol. Surfactant (200 mg/kg poractant alfa) was administered at 10 min. Dynamic compliance, gas exchange and regional ventilation and aeration characteristics (electrical impedance tomography) were measured throughout and compared between groups, and with a historical group (n=38) managed using the same strategies without surfactant. Results: Compliance increased after surfactant only in the DynPEEP group (p<0.0001, repeated measures analysis of variance), being 0.17 (0.10, 0.23) mL/kg/cmH2O higher at 60 min than the SI group. An SI resulted in the least uniform aeration, and unlike the no-recruitment and DynPEEP groups, the distribution of aeration and tidal ventilation did not improve with surfactant. All groups had similar improvements in oxygenation post-surfactant compared with the corresponding groups not treated with surfactant. Conclusions: A DynPEEP strategy at birth may improve the response to early surfactant therapy, whereas rapid lung inflation with SI creates non-uniform aeration that appears to inhibit surfactant efficacy.

Aeration strategy at birth influences the physiological response to surfactant in preterm lambs

Dellaca R.;
2019

Abstract

Background: The influence of pressure strategies to promote lung aeration at birth on the subsequent physiological response to exogenous surfactant therapy has not been investigated. Objectives: To compare the effect of sustained inflation (SI) and a dynamic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) manoeuvre at birth on the subsequent physiological response to exogenous surfactant therapy in preterm lambs. Methods: Steroid-exposed preterm lambs (124-127 days' gestation; n=71) were randomly assigned from birth to either (1) positive-pressure ventilation (PPV) with no recruitment manoeuvre; (2) SI until stable aeration; or (3) 3 min dynamic stepwise PEEP strategy (maximum 14-20 cmH2O; dynamic PEEP (DynPEEP)), followed by PPV for 60 min using a standardised protocol. Surfactant (200 mg/kg poractant alfa) was administered at 10 min. Dynamic compliance, gas exchange and regional ventilation and aeration characteristics (electrical impedance tomography) were measured throughout and compared between groups, and with a historical group (n=38) managed using the same strategies without surfactant. Results: Compliance increased after surfactant only in the DynPEEP group (p<0.0001, repeated measures analysis of variance), being 0.17 (0.10, 0.23) mL/kg/cmH2O higher at 60 min than the SI group. An SI resulted in the least uniform aeration, and unlike the no-recruitment and DynPEEP groups, the distribution of aeration and tidal ventilation did not improve with surfactant. All groups had similar improvements in oxygenation post-surfactant compared with the corresponding groups not treated with surfactant. Conclusions: A DynPEEP strategy at birth may improve the response to early surfactant therapy, whereas rapid lung inflation with SI creates non-uniform aeration that appears to inhibit surfactant efficacy.
animal research; neonatology; respiratory; resuscitation
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11311/1103315
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