Recent compilers offer a vast number of multilayered optimizations targeting different code segments of an application. Choosing among these optimizations can significantly impact the performance of the code being optimized. The selection of the right set of compiler optimizations for a particular code segment is a very hard problem, but finding the best ordering of these optimizations adds further complexity. Finding the best ordering represents a long standing problem in compilation research, named the phase-ordering problem. The traditional approach of constructing compiler heuristics to solve this problem simply cannot cope with the enormous complexity of choosing the right ordering of optimizations for every code segment in an application. This article proposes an automatic optimization framework we call MiCOMP, which Mitigates the Compiler Phase-ordering problem. We perform phase ordering of the optimizations in LLVM’s highest optimization level using optimization sub-sequences and machine learning. The idea is to cluster the optimization passes of LLVM’s O3 setting into different clusters to predict the speedup of a complete sequence of all the optimization clusters instead of having to deal with the ordering of more than 60 different individual optimizations. The predictive model uses (1) dynamic features, (2) an encoded version of the compiler sequence, and (3) an exploration heuristic to tackle the problem. Experimental results using the LLVM compiler framework and the Cbench suite show the effectiveness of the proposed clustering and encoding techniques to application-based reordering of passes, while using a number of predictive models. We perform statistical analysis on the results and compare against (1) random iterative compilation, (2) standard optimization levels, and (3) two recent prediction approaches. We show that MiCOMP’s iterative compilation using its sub-sequences can reach an average performance speedup of 1.31 (up to 1.51). Additionally, we demonstrate that MiCOMP’s prediction model outperforms the -O1, -O2, and -O3 optimization levels within using just a few predictions and reduces the prediction error rate down to only 5%. Overall, it achieves 90% of the available speedup by exploring less than 0.001% of the optimization space.

MiCOMP: Mitigating the Compiler Phase-Ordering Problem Using Optimization Sub-Sequences and Machine Learning

ASHOURI, AMIR HOSSEIN;PALERMO, GIANLUCA;SILVANO, CRISTINA;
2017-01-01

Abstract

Recent compilers offer a vast number of multilayered optimizations targeting different code segments of an application. Choosing among these optimizations can significantly impact the performance of the code being optimized. The selection of the right set of compiler optimizations for a particular code segment is a very hard problem, but finding the best ordering of these optimizations adds further complexity. Finding the best ordering represents a long standing problem in compilation research, named the phase-ordering problem. The traditional approach of constructing compiler heuristics to solve this problem simply cannot cope with the enormous complexity of choosing the right ordering of optimizations for every code segment in an application. This article proposes an automatic optimization framework we call MiCOMP, which Mitigates the Compiler Phase-ordering problem. We perform phase ordering of the optimizations in LLVM’s highest optimization level using optimization sub-sequences and machine learning. The idea is to cluster the optimization passes of LLVM’s O3 setting into different clusters to predict the speedup of a complete sequence of all the optimization clusters instead of having to deal with the ordering of more than 60 different individual optimizations. The predictive model uses (1) dynamic features, (2) an encoded version of the compiler sequence, and (3) an exploration heuristic to tackle the problem. Experimental results using the LLVM compiler framework and the Cbench suite show the effectiveness of the proposed clustering and encoding techniques to application-based reordering of passes, while using a number of predictive models. We perform statistical analysis on the results and compare against (1) random iterative compilation, (2) standard optimization levels, and (3) two recent prediction approaches. We show that MiCOMP’s iterative compilation using its sub-sequences can reach an average performance speedup of 1.31 (up to 1.51). Additionally, we demonstrate that MiCOMP’s prediction model outperforms the -O1, -O2, and -O3 optimization levels within using just a few predictions and reduces the prediction error rate down to only 5%. Overall, it achieves 90% of the available speedup by exploring less than 0.001% of the optimization space.
2017
Autotuning, phase-ordering, optimizations, supervised-learning
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11311/1032361
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