In this study we discuss the cost efficiency of the optimization of a new prototypical mixing flow, the Fourier sine flow, an extension of the sine flow. The Fourier sine flow stirs a mixture on a two-dimensional torus by blinking, at prescribed switching times, two orthogonal velocity fields with profiles represented by a Fourier sine series. We derive a family of mixers of increasing complexity by truncating the series to one, two, three and four modes. We consider the optimization of the velocity profiles and the optimization of the stirring protocol. We implement the former by computing, at each iteration, the amplitudes and phase shifts of the Fourier modes synthesizing the velocity profiles that minimize the mix-norm, our cost function, i.e. maximize the quality of mixing. We implement the latter by selecting, at each iteration, the best performing of the two orthogonal stirring velocity fields, i.e. the velocity field that minimizes the mix-norm. To obtain a physically meaningful optimization problem, we constrain the kinetic energy of the flow to be the same among all mixers and use the viscous dissipation as an estimate of the power input needed to operate the mixers. We characterize the performance of the mixers using three cost functions: the homogenization time, the computational cost of optimization and the total energy consumption. We test the mixers on a range of admissible power inputs using two representative switching times. We report some surprising results. Mixers equipped with the velocity profile optimization and a periodic stirring protocol cannot be optimal, i.e. their performance depends on the switching time chosen, independently of the number of Fourier modes used in the optimization. Apparently, optimal mixers can be obtained only by coupling velocity profile and stirring protocol optimizations. The computational cost of the optimization depends only on the number of Fourier modes used and grows by about an order of magnitude for each Fourier mode added to the optimization. At low power inputs, the coupled optimizations allow us to obtain an attractive reduction of the homogenization time in combination with a reduction of the total energy required to produce it. However, increasing the power input does not guarantee a reduction of the homogenization time. Counter-intuitively, there are ranges of power inputs for which both the homogenization time and the total energy increase when increasing the power input. Finally, for large enough power inputs, optimizations with two, three and four Fourier modes perform similarly, making the former optimization the most cost-efficient.
|Titolo:||On the cost efficiency of mixing optimization|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2012|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01.1 Articolo in Rivista|
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|GUBAO01-12.pdf||Paper||Publisher’s version||Accesso riservato|