We present a CMOS imager consisting of 32×32 smart pixels, each one able to detect single photons in the 300-900 nm wavelength range and to perform both photon-counting and photon-timing operations on very fast optical events with faint intensities. In photon-counting mode, the imager provides photon-number (i.e, intensity) resolved movies of the scene under observation, up to 100 000 frames/s. In photon-timing, the imager provides photon arrival times with 312 ps resolution. The result are videos with either time-resolved (e.g., fluorescence) maps of a sample, or 3-D depth-resolved maps of a target scene. The imager is fabricated in a cost-effective 0.35-μm CMOS technology, automotive certified. Each pixel consists of a single-photon avalanche diode with 30 μm photoactive diameter, coupled to an in-pixel 10-bit time-to-digital converter with 320-ns full-scale range, an INL of 10% LSB and a DNL of 2% LSB. The chip operates in global shutter mode, with full frame times down to 10 μs and just 1-ns conversion time. The reconfigurable imager design enables a broad set of applications, like time-resolved spectroscopy, fluorescence lifetime imaging, diffusive optical tomography, molecular imaging, time-of-flight 3-D ranging and atmospheric layer sensing through LIDAR.

CMOS Imager With 1024 SPADs and TDCs for Single-Photon Timing and 3-D Time-of-Flight

VILLA, FEDERICA ALBERTA;LUSSANA, RUDI;BRONZI, DANILO;TISA, SIMONE;TOSI, ALBERTO;ZAPPA, FRANCO;DALLA MORA, ALBERTO;CONTINI, DAVIDE;
2014

Abstract

We present a CMOS imager consisting of 32×32 smart pixels, each one able to detect single photons in the 300-900 nm wavelength range and to perform both photon-counting and photon-timing operations on very fast optical events with faint intensities. In photon-counting mode, the imager provides photon-number (i.e, intensity) resolved movies of the scene under observation, up to 100 000 frames/s. In photon-timing, the imager provides photon arrival times with 312 ps resolution. The result are videos with either time-resolved (e.g., fluorescence) maps of a sample, or 3-D depth-resolved maps of a target scene. The imager is fabricated in a cost-effective 0.35-μm CMOS technology, automotive certified. Each pixel consists of a single-photon avalanche diode with 30 μm photoactive diameter, coupled to an in-pixel 10-bit time-to-digital converter with 320-ns full-scale range, an INL of 10% LSB and a DNL of 2% LSB. The chip operates in global shutter mode, with full frame times down to 10 μs and just 1-ns conversion time. The reconfigurable imager design enables a broad set of applications, like time-resolved spectroscopy, fluorescence lifetime imaging, diffusive optical tomography, molecular imaging, time-of-flight 3-D ranging and atmospheric layer sensing through LIDAR.
sezele, Avalanche diodes; CMOS integrated circuits; Cost effectiveness; Fluorescence; Frequency converters; Laser spectroscopy; Molecular imaging; Optical radar; Optical tomography; Particle beams; Pixels 2-d imaging; 3-D ranging; CMOS imagers; Light detection and ranging; Photon counting; Single photon avalanche diode; Time of flight; Time-correlated single-photon counting
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11311/933756
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