We present a smart pixel based on a single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) for advanced time-of-flight (TOF) and time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) applications, fabricated in a cost-effective 0.35-m CMOS technology. The large CMOS detector (30-m active area diameter) shows very low noise (12 counts per second at room temperature at 5-V excess bias) and high efficiency in a wide wavelength range (about 50% at 410 nm and still 5% at 800 nm). The analog front-end electronics promptly senses and quenches the avalanche, thus leading to an almost negligible afterpulsing effect. The in-pixel 10-bit time-to-digital converter (TDC) provides 312-ps resolution and 320-ns full-scale range (FSR), i.e., 10-cm single-shot spatial resolution within 50-m depth range in a TOF system. The in-pixel 10-bit memory and output buffers make this smart pixel the viable building block for advanced single-photon imager arrays for 3-D depth ranging in safety and security applications and for 2-D fluorescence lifetime decays in biomedical imaging.

SPAD Smart-Pixel for Time-of-Flight and Time-Correlated Single-Photon Counting Measurements

VILLA, FEDERICA ALBERTA;MARKOVIC, BOJAN;BELLISAI, SIMONE;BRONZI, DANILO;TOSI, ALBERTO;ZAPPA, FRANCO;TISA, SIMONE;
2012

Abstract

We present a smart pixel based on a single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) for advanced time-of-flight (TOF) and time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) applications, fabricated in a cost-effective 0.35-m CMOS technology. The large CMOS detector (30-m active area diameter) shows very low noise (12 counts per second at room temperature at 5-V excess bias) and high efficiency in a wide wavelength range (about 50% at 410 nm and still 5% at 800 nm). The analog front-end electronics promptly senses and quenches the avalanche, thus leading to an almost negligible afterpulsing effect. The in-pixel 10-bit time-to-digital converter (TDC) provides 312-ps resolution and 320-ns full-scale range (FSR), i.e., 10-cm single-shot spatial resolution within 50-m depth range in a TOF system. The in-pixel 10-bit memory and output buffers make this smart pixel the viable building block for advanced single-photon imager arrays for 3-D depth ranging in safety and security applications and for 2-D fluorescence lifetime decays in biomedical imaging.
sezele
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
06198279.pdf

Accesso riservato

: Post-Print (DRAFT o Author’s Accepted Manuscript-AAM)
Dimensione 1.26 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
1.26 MB Adobe PDF   Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11311/660392
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 79
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 74
social impact