The genesis of a 3D model has basically two definitely different paths. Firstly we can consider the CAD generated models, where the shape is defined according to a user drawing action, operating with different mathematical “bricks” like B-Splines, NURBS or subdivision surfaces (mathematical CAD modelling), or directly drawing small polygonal planar facets in space, approximating with them complex free form shapes (polygonal CAD modelling). This approach can be used for both ideal elements (a project, a fantasy shape in the mind of a designer, a 3D cartoon, etc.) or for real objects. In the latter case the object has to be first surveyed in order to generate a drawing coherent with the real stuff. If the surveying process is not only a rough acquisition of simple distances with a substantial amount of manual drawing, a scene can be modelled in 3D by capturing with a digital instrument many points of its geometrical features and connecting them by polygons to produce a 3D result similar to a polygonal CAD model, with the difference that the shape generated is in this case an accurate 3D acquisition of a real object (reality-based polygonal modelling). Considering only device operating on the ground, 3D capturing techniques for the generation of reality-based 3D models may span from passive sensors and image data (Remondino and El-Hakim, 2006), optical active sensors and range data (Blais, 2004; Shan & Toth, 2008; Vosselman and Maas, 2010), classical surveying (e.g. total stations or Global Navigation Satellite System - GNSS), 2D maps (Yin et al., 2009) or an integration of the aforementioned methods (Stumpfel et al., 2003; Guidi et al., 2003; Beraldin, 2004; Stamos et al., 2008; Guidi et al., 2009a; Remondino et al., 2009; Callieri et al., 2011). The choice depends on the required resolution and accuracy, object dimensions, location constraints, instrument’s portability and usability, surface characteristics, working team experience, project’s budget, final goal, etc. Although aware of the potentialities of the image-based approach and its recent developments in automated and dense image matching for non-expert the easy usability and reliability of optical active sensors in acquiring 3D data is generally a good motivation to decline image-based approaches. Moreover the great advantage of active sensors is the fact that they deliver immediately dense and detailed 3D point clouds, whose coordinate are metrically defined. On the other hand image data require some processing and a mathematical formulation to transform the two-dimensional image measurements into metric three-dimensional coordinates. Image-based modelling techniques (mainly photogrammetry and computer vision) are generally preferred in cases of monuments or architectures with regular geometric shapes, low budget projects, good experience of the working team, time or location constraints for the data acquisition and processing. This chapter is intended as an updated review of reality-based 3D modelling in terrestrial applications, with the different categories of 3D sensing devices and the related data processing pipelines.

3D Modelling from Real Data

GUIDI, GABRIELE;
2012

Abstract

The genesis of a 3D model has basically two definitely different paths. Firstly we can consider the CAD generated models, where the shape is defined according to a user drawing action, operating with different mathematical “bricks” like B-Splines, NURBS or subdivision surfaces (mathematical CAD modelling), or directly drawing small polygonal planar facets in space, approximating with them complex free form shapes (polygonal CAD modelling). This approach can be used for both ideal elements (a project, a fantasy shape in the mind of a designer, a 3D cartoon, etc.) or for real objects. In the latter case the object has to be first surveyed in order to generate a drawing coherent with the real stuff. If the surveying process is not only a rough acquisition of simple distances with a substantial amount of manual drawing, a scene can be modelled in 3D by capturing with a digital instrument many points of its geometrical features and connecting them by polygons to produce a 3D result similar to a polygonal CAD model, with the difference that the shape generated is in this case an accurate 3D acquisition of a real object (reality-based polygonal modelling). Considering only device operating on the ground, 3D capturing techniques for the generation of reality-based 3D models may span from passive sensors and image data (Remondino and El-Hakim, 2006), optical active sensors and range data (Blais, 2004; Shan & Toth, 2008; Vosselman and Maas, 2010), classical surveying (e.g. total stations or Global Navigation Satellite System - GNSS), 2D maps (Yin et al., 2009) or an integration of the aforementioned methods (Stumpfel et al., 2003; Guidi et al., 2003; Beraldin, 2004; Stamos et al., 2008; Guidi et al., 2009a; Remondino et al., 2009; Callieri et al., 2011). The choice depends on the required resolution and accuracy, object dimensions, location constraints, instrument’s portability and usability, surface characteristics, working team experience, project’s budget, final goal, etc. Although aware of the potentialities of the image-based approach and its recent developments in automated and dense image matching for non-expert the easy usability and reliability of optical active sensors in acquiring 3D data is generally a good motivation to decline image-based approaches. Moreover the great advantage of active sensors is the fact that they deliver immediately dense and detailed 3D point clouds, whose coordinate are metrically defined. On the other hand image data require some processing and a mathematical formulation to transform the two-dimensional image measurements into metric three-dimensional coordinates. Image-based modelling techniques (mainly photogrammetry and computer vision) are generally preferred in cases of monuments or architectures with regular geometric shapes, low budget projects, good experience of the working team, time or location constraints for the data acquisition and processing. This chapter is intended as an updated review of reality-based 3D modelling in terrestrial applications, with the different categories of 3D sensing devices and the related data processing pipelines.
Modeling and Simulation in Engineering
9789535100126
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11311/640735
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