We present a high precision Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) architecture suitable for multi-channel implementations such as in monolithic arrays of single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) detectors for time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) and LIDAR applications. The proposed architecture is based on a ‘coarse’ counter and two-stage interpolators, thus reaching a high interpolation factor with moderate chip area consumption. A prototype chip has been fabricated in a 0.35 μm standard CMOS technology and contains smart-pixels with the TDC and the 20 μm diameter SPAD detector with its analog sensing and quenching electronics. The 250 μm x 250 μm smart-pixel reaches a resolution of 10 ps and a dynamic range of 160 ns. It is suitable for imaging arrays aimed at photon timing applications like FLIM, FCS, FRET, but also Time-Of-Flight applications like LIDAR.

Smart-pixel with SPAD detector and Time-to-Digital Converter for Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting

MARKOVIC, BOJAN;TOSI, ALBERTO;ZAPPA, FRANCO;TISA, SIMONE
2010

Abstract

We present a high precision Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) architecture suitable for multi-channel implementations such as in monolithic arrays of single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) detectors for time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) and LIDAR applications. The proposed architecture is based on a ‘coarse’ counter and two-stage interpolators, thus reaching a high interpolation factor with moderate chip area consumption. A prototype chip has been fabricated in a 0.35 μm standard CMOS technology and contains smart-pixels with the TDC and the 20 μm diameter SPAD detector with its analog sensing and quenching electronics. The 250 μm x 250 μm smart-pixel reaches a resolution of 10 ps and a dynamic range of 160 ns. It is suitable for imaging arrays aimed at photon timing applications like FLIM, FCS, FRET, but also Time-Of-Flight applications like LIDAR.
2010 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society, PHOTINICS 2010
9781424453689
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11311/574133
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