European Commission aims to reach net zero carbon emissions by 2050. Since transport produces 23 % of the global emissions, a massive electrification is necessary. A proper infrastructure for battery and fuel cell electric vehicles (BEVs/FCEVs) charging/refueling should be developed, especially along the highways. This research study illustrates three different alternatives of energy storage integration into fast charging stations (FCSs) aiming to support BEVs/FCEVs fast charging/refueling by exploiting the surplus of renewable energy assessed in Italy at 2040. Specifically, the integration of Lithium-Ion Battery (LIB), Vanadium Redox Flow Battery (VRFB) and LIB/Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolyzer (PEM-E) into FCS is analyzed assessing the overgeneration exploitation and volumetric encumbrance of storage section. Dynamic FCS models are developed for each scenario and simulations are performed to proper sizing the storage components. The paper outcomes highlight that the number of charged/refueled EVs at parity of occupied volume is for the PEM-E case of one order magnitude lower than LIB case. If the comparison is made over the charged/refueled kWh per cube meter, the difference between PEM-E and LIB is significantly reduced (i.e., 11.7 vs. 28 kWh m−3). It is highlighted as BEVs fast charging (once LIB is considered) allows more than halve volume occupation with respect to FCEVs refueling with H2 on-site production, since territory occupation is a constraint at systemic level. Moreover, the LIB integration allows a reduction up to 53 % of the power requested from the grid with respect to the storage absence, reducing under voltage and power stability issues as well.

A new concept of highways infrastructure integrating energy storage devices for e-mobility transition

Longo M.;Zaninelli D.;
2023-01-01

Abstract

European Commission aims to reach net zero carbon emissions by 2050. Since transport produces 23 % of the global emissions, a massive electrification is necessary. A proper infrastructure for battery and fuel cell electric vehicles (BEVs/FCEVs) charging/refueling should be developed, especially along the highways. This research study illustrates three different alternatives of energy storage integration into fast charging stations (FCSs) aiming to support BEVs/FCEVs fast charging/refueling by exploiting the surplus of renewable energy assessed in Italy at 2040. Specifically, the integration of Lithium-Ion Battery (LIB), Vanadium Redox Flow Battery (VRFB) and LIB/Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolyzer (PEM-E) into FCS is analyzed assessing the overgeneration exploitation and volumetric encumbrance of storage section. Dynamic FCS models are developed for each scenario and simulations are performed to proper sizing the storage components. The paper outcomes highlight that the number of charged/refueled EVs at parity of occupied volume is for the PEM-E case of one order magnitude lower than LIB case. If the comparison is made over the charged/refueled kWh per cube meter, the difference between PEM-E and LIB is significantly reduced (i.e., 11.7 vs. 28 kWh m−3). It is highlighted as BEVs fast charging (once LIB is considered) allows more than halve volume occupation with respect to FCEVs refueling with H2 on-site production, since territory occupation is a constraint at systemic level. Moreover, the LIB integration allows a reduction up to 53 % of the power requested from the grid with respect to the storage absence, reducing under voltage and power stability issues as well.
2023
Electric and hydrogen mobility
Electrolyzer
Energy storage
Fast charging station
Hydrogen
Li-ion battery
Vanadium redox flow battery
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11311/1248748
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