Background: Performance and durability of arterio-venous grafts depend on their ability to mimic the mechanical behavior of the anastomized blood vessels. To select the most suitable synthetic graft, in vivo evaluation of the radial deformability of peripheral arteries and veins could be crucial; however, a standardized non-invasive strategy is still missing. Herein, we sought to define a novel and user-friendly clinical protocol for in vivo assessment of the arm vessel deformability. Methods: A dedicated protocol, applied on 30 volunteers, was specifically designed to estimate both compliance and distensibility of the brachial and radial arteries, and of the basilic and cephalic veins. Bi-dimensional ultrasound imaging was used to acquire cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of arteries in clinostatic configuration, and CSAs of veins combining clinostatic and orthostatic configurations. Arterial pulse pressure was measured with a digital sphygmomanometer, while venous hydrostatic pressure was derived from the arm length in orthostatic configuration. Results: For each participant, all CSAs were successfully extracted from ultrasound images. The basilic vein and the radial artery exhibited the largest (21.5±8.9 mm2) and the smallest (3.4±1.0 mm2) CSAs, respectively; CSA measurements were highly repeatable (Bland-Altman bias <10% and Pearson correlation ≥0.90, for both arteries and veins). In veins, compliance and distensibility were higher than in arteries; compliance was significantly higher (P<0.0001) in the brachial than in the radial artery (3.52×10−4 vs. 1.3×10−4 cm2/mmHg); it was three times larger in basilic veins than in cephalic veins (17.4×10−4 vs. 5.6×10−4 cm2/mmHg, P<0.0001). Conclusions: The proposed non-invasive protocol proved feasible, effective and adequate for daily clinical practice, allowing for the estimation of patient-specific compliance and distensibility of peripheral arteries and veins. If further extended, it may contribute to the fabrication of biohybrid arterio-venous grafts, paving the way towards patient-tailored solutions for vascular access.

Non-invasive estimation of vascular compliance and distensibility in the arm vessels: a novel ultrasound-based protocol

Cappelletti S.;Caimi A.;Caldiroli A.;Votta E.;Redaelli A.;Sturla F.
2022-01-01

Abstract

Background: Performance and durability of arterio-venous grafts depend on their ability to mimic the mechanical behavior of the anastomized blood vessels. To select the most suitable synthetic graft, in vivo evaluation of the radial deformability of peripheral arteries and veins could be crucial; however, a standardized non-invasive strategy is still missing. Herein, we sought to define a novel and user-friendly clinical protocol for in vivo assessment of the arm vessel deformability. Methods: A dedicated protocol, applied on 30 volunteers, was specifically designed to estimate both compliance and distensibility of the brachial and radial arteries, and of the basilic and cephalic veins. Bi-dimensional ultrasound imaging was used to acquire cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of arteries in clinostatic configuration, and CSAs of veins combining clinostatic and orthostatic configurations. Arterial pulse pressure was measured with a digital sphygmomanometer, while venous hydrostatic pressure was derived from the arm length in orthostatic configuration. Results: For each participant, all CSAs were successfully extracted from ultrasound images. The basilic vein and the radial artery exhibited the largest (21.5±8.9 mm2) and the smallest (3.4±1.0 mm2) CSAs, respectively; CSA measurements were highly repeatable (Bland-Altman bias <10% and Pearson correlation ≥0.90, for both arteries and veins). In veins, compliance and distensibility were higher than in arteries; compliance was significantly higher (P<0.0001) in the brachial than in the radial artery (3.52×10−4 vs. 1.3×10−4 cm2/mmHg); it was three times larger in basilic veins than in cephalic veins (17.4×10−4 vs. 5.6×10−4 cm2/mmHg, P<0.0001). Conclusions: The proposed non-invasive protocol proved feasible, effective and adequate for daily clinical practice, allowing for the estimation of patient-specific compliance and distensibility of peripheral arteries and veins. If further extended, it may contribute to the fabrication of biohybrid arterio-venous grafts, paving the way towards patient-tailored solutions for vascular access.
2022
compliance
distensibility
hemodialysis
Peripheral blood vessels
ultrasound imaging
vascular access
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
2022-Sturla-Non-invasive-compliance-measurement.pdf

accesso aperto

: Publisher’s version
Dimensione 849.63 kB
Formato Adobe PDF
849.63 kB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11311/1223336
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 1
  • Scopus 1
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 1
social impact