Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) attracts the attention of high-end manufacturing sectors for its capability of depositing free-form components with elevated mechanical properties. However, due to the intrinsic nature of the feedstock material and the interaction with the laser beam, the process is prone to defect formation and manufacturing inaccuracies. Therefore, the development of a monitoring architecture capable of measuring the geometrical features of the process tool (i.e., the melt pool generated by the laser-material interaction) is of paramount importance. This information may then be exploited to evaluate process stability. In this work, a high-speed camera was implemented coaxially in the optical chain of an LPBF system to extrapolate the geometrical features of the molten pool surface and its oscillatory behaviour, with elevated spatial and temporal resolution. A secondary light source was tested in both coaxial and off-axis configuration to dominate process emission and assess optimal illumination conditions for extracting the molten pool’s geometrical features. Preliminary results showed that the off-axis configuration of the illumination light enabled direct measurement of the molten pool surface geometry. A newly developed image processing algorithm based on illuminated images obtained via the coaxial observation frame was employed to provide automated identification of the melt pool geometry. Moreover, bright reflections of the external illumination over the melt surface could be clearly observed and used to characterise the oscillatory motion of the molten material. This information may therefore be taken as an indirect indicator of the molten pool penetration depth, hence providing information regarding the subsurface geometry. A successive experimental investigation showed the capability of the monitoring architecture to resolve the molten pool’s length, width and area with elevated acquisition frequency. Molten pool surface oscillations in the kHz range could be correlated to the penetration depth while the molten pool width measured via the high-speed imaging setup corresponded to the track width of the depositions. Hence, the methodological approach for the concurrent measurement of the molten pool’s geometry in three spatial dimensions was demonstrated and may be used to track the stability of LPBF depositions.

External Illumination Enables Coaxial Sensing of Surface and Subsurface Molten Pool Geometry in LPBF

Caprio L.;Demir A. G.;Previtali B.
2022-01-01

Abstract

Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) attracts the attention of high-end manufacturing sectors for its capability of depositing free-form components with elevated mechanical properties. However, due to the intrinsic nature of the feedstock material and the interaction with the laser beam, the process is prone to defect formation and manufacturing inaccuracies. Therefore, the development of a monitoring architecture capable of measuring the geometrical features of the process tool (i.e., the melt pool generated by the laser-material interaction) is of paramount importance. This information may then be exploited to evaluate process stability. In this work, a high-speed camera was implemented coaxially in the optical chain of an LPBF system to extrapolate the geometrical features of the molten pool surface and its oscillatory behaviour, with elevated spatial and temporal resolution. A secondary light source was tested in both coaxial and off-axis configuration to dominate process emission and assess optimal illumination conditions for extracting the molten pool’s geometrical features. Preliminary results showed that the off-axis configuration of the illumination light enabled direct measurement of the molten pool surface geometry. A newly developed image processing algorithm based on illuminated images obtained via the coaxial observation frame was employed to provide automated identification of the melt pool geometry. Moreover, bright reflections of the external illumination over the melt surface could be clearly observed and used to characterise the oscillatory motion of the molten material. This information may therefore be taken as an indirect indicator of the molten pool penetration depth, hence providing information regarding the subsurface geometry. A successive experimental investigation showed the capability of the monitoring architecture to resolve the molten pool’s length, width and area with elevated acquisition frequency. Molten pool surface oscillations in the kHz range could be correlated to the penetration depth while the molten pool width measured via the high-speed imaging setup corresponded to the track width of the depositions. Hence, the methodological approach for the concurrent measurement of the molten pool’s geometry in three spatial dimensions was demonstrated and may be used to track the stability of LPBF depositions.
2022
melt pool oscillation, coaxial monitoring, frequency domain, laser powder bed fusion, additive manufacturing
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11311/1223305
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