Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) techniques, such as direct current stimulation (tDCS) and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), cause neurophysiological and behavioral modifications as responses to the electric field are induced in the brain. Estimations of such electric fields are based mainly on computational studies, and in vivo measurements have been used to expand the current knowledge. Here, we review the current tDCS- and tACS-induced electric fields estimations as they are recorded in humans and non-human primates using intracerebral electrodes. Direct currents and alternating currents were applied with heterogeneous protocols, and the recording procedures were characterized by a tentative methodology. However, for the clinical stimulation protocols, an injected current seems to reach the brain, even at deep structures. The stimulation parameters (e.g., intensity, frequency and phase), the electrodes' positions and personal anatomy determine whether the intensities might be high enough to affect both neuronal and non-neuronal cell activity, also deep brain structures.

Electric Fields Induced in the Brain by Transcranial Electric Stimulation: A Review of In Vivo Recordings

Guidetti, Matteo;Bocci, Tommaso;Bianchi, Anna Maria;Parazzini, Marta;Priori, Alberto
2022-01-01

Abstract

Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) techniques, such as direct current stimulation (tDCS) and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), cause neurophysiological and behavioral modifications as responses to the electric field are induced in the brain. Estimations of such electric fields are based mainly on computational studies, and in vivo measurements have been used to expand the current knowledge. Here, we review the current tDCS- and tACS-induced electric fields estimations as they are recorded in humans and non-human primates using intracerebral electrodes. Direct currents and alternating currents were applied with heterogeneous protocols, and the recording procedures were characterized by a tentative methodology. However, for the clinical stimulation protocols, an injected current seems to reach the brain, even at deep structures. The stimulation parameters (e.g., intensity, frequency and phase), the electrodes' positions and personal anatomy determine whether the intensities might be high enough to affect both neuronal and non-neuronal cell activity, also deep brain structures.
electric fields
intracranial recordings
neuromodulation
transcranial alternating current stimulation
transcranial direct current stimulation
transcranial electric stimulation
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11311/1223208
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