Background Understanding and characterizing delamination in composite laminates is fundamental for analysing their structural integrity, since operational loads may promote the propagation of interlaminar defects. Propagation often occurs in mode II and is driven by shear stress. However, the methods used to characterise this propagation mode are affected by frictional effects between crack surfaces. Objective This work aims to build up an experimental method to identify the effect of friction in a 4 points End Notched Flexure test, which does not require the use of analytical or numerical models of the specimen. Methods This goal is achieved by performing a series of loading–unloading cycles before the delamination test, which helps to calibrate an analytical expression that estimates the energy dissipated by friction, and the analytical expression is then inserted into the formulation of the Irwin-Kies equation. Experimental validation is carried out considering tests on different materials and different friction conditions between the crack surfaces, as well as validation by means of a virtual experiment being performed for comparison with an analytical model presented in literature. The novelty of this method lies in the fact that it does not require the development of any analytical or numerical model of the specimen and consequently no calibration between models and the experiment is required. Results Tests on composite specimens show good results, the friction contribution estimated by the method is comparable with those presented in the literature. Moreover, the virtual experiment shows that there is a good match between the results obtained using this method and those obtained using an analytical model presented in the literature. Conclusions This method seems to provide satisfactory results for both real and virtual experiments, moreover, the procedure is relatively simple, making it a suitable method for the evaluation of frictional effects in the 4 point End Notched Flexure test.

Experimental Identification of Frictional Effects on Interlaminar Toughness of Composite Laminates in 4ENF Test

Ballarin, P.;Airoldi, A.;Aceti, P.;Ghiasvand, S.;Sala, G.
2022

Abstract

Background Understanding and characterizing delamination in composite laminates is fundamental for analysing their structural integrity, since operational loads may promote the propagation of interlaminar defects. Propagation often occurs in mode II and is driven by shear stress. However, the methods used to characterise this propagation mode are affected by frictional effects between crack surfaces. Objective This work aims to build up an experimental method to identify the effect of friction in a 4 points End Notched Flexure test, which does not require the use of analytical or numerical models of the specimen. Methods This goal is achieved by performing a series of loading–unloading cycles before the delamination test, which helps to calibrate an analytical expression that estimates the energy dissipated by friction, and the analytical expression is then inserted into the formulation of the Irwin-Kies equation. Experimental validation is carried out considering tests on different materials and different friction conditions between the crack surfaces, as well as validation by means of a virtual experiment being performed for comparison with an analytical model presented in literature. The novelty of this method lies in the fact that it does not require the development of any analytical or numerical model of the specimen and consequently no calibration between models and the experiment is required. Results Tests on composite specimens show good results, the friction contribution estimated by the method is comparable with those presented in the literature. Moreover, the virtual experiment shows that there is a good match between the results obtained using this method and those obtained using an analytical model presented in the literature. Conclusions This method seems to provide satisfactory results for both real and virtual experiments, moreover, the procedure is relatively simple, making it a suitable method for the evaluation of frictional effects in the 4 point End Notched Flexure test.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11311/1217502
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