The oxidation therapy, based on the controlled production of Reactive Oxygen Species directly into the tumor site, was introduced as alternative antitumor approach. For this purpose, d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) from the yeast Rhodotorula gracilis, an enzyme able to efficiently catalyze the production of hydrogen peroxide from d-amino acids, was adsorbed onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), previously functionalized with polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) or polyethylene glycol (PEG) at different degrees to reduce their toxicity, to be targeted directly into the tumor. In vitro activity and cytotoxicity assays demonstrated that DAAO-functionalized nanotubes (f-MWCNTs) produced H2O2 and induced toxic effects to selected tumor cell lines. After incubation in human plasma, the protein corona was investigated by SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry analysis. The enzyme nanocarriers generally seemed to favor their biocompatibility, promoting the interaction with dysopsonins. Despite this, PLGA or high degree of PEGylation promoted the adsorption of immunoglobulins with a possible activation of immune response and this effect was probably due to PLGA hydrophobicity and dimensions and to the production of specific antibodies against PEG. In conclusion, the PEGylated MWCNTs at low degree seemed the most biocompatible nanocarrier for adsorbed DAAO, preserving its anticancer activity and forming a bio-corona able to reduce both defensive responses and blood clearance.

Unveiling the Bio-corona Fingerprinting of Potential Anticancer Carbon Nanotubes Coupled with D-Amino Acid Oxidase

Marta Boreggio;Cristian Gambarotti;Elisa Fasoli
2022-01-01

Abstract

The oxidation therapy, based on the controlled production of Reactive Oxygen Species directly into the tumor site, was introduced as alternative antitumor approach. For this purpose, d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) from the yeast Rhodotorula gracilis, an enzyme able to efficiently catalyze the production of hydrogen peroxide from d-amino acids, was adsorbed onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), previously functionalized with polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) or polyethylene glycol (PEG) at different degrees to reduce their toxicity, to be targeted directly into the tumor. In vitro activity and cytotoxicity assays demonstrated that DAAO-functionalized nanotubes (f-MWCNTs) produced H2O2 and induced toxic effects to selected tumor cell lines. After incubation in human plasma, the protein corona was investigated by SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry analysis. The enzyme nanocarriers generally seemed to favor their biocompatibility, promoting the interaction with dysopsonins. Despite this, PLGA or high degree of PEGylation promoted the adsorption of immunoglobulins with a possible activation of immune response and this effect was probably due to PLGA hydrophobicity and dimensions and to the production of specific antibodies against PEG. In conclusion, the PEGylated MWCNTs at low degree seemed the most biocompatible nanocarrier for adsorbed DAAO, preserving its anticancer activity and forming a bio-corona able to reduce both defensive responses and blood clearance.
2022
D-Amino acid oxidase
Drug delivery
Mass spectrometry
Multi-walled carbon nanotube
Protein corona
Proteomic analysis
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11311/1217366
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