Consumption of pharmaceuticals by people is growing. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is an extensively used anti-epileptic drug that is recalcitrant to degradation. As a result, CBZ has been widely detected in the aquatic ecosystem due to its daily consumption and drainage in sewage systems. Leakages from sewage networks and septic tanks may represent one of the main sources of CBZ in groundwater. In this study, CBZ concentrations in groundwater and their correlations with the demographic structure of the population were investigated in the densely populated Milan urban area. Seventy-six demographic variables were retrieved from the Italian Population and Housing census. Twenty-one groundwater samples were collected from unconfined and semi-confined aquifers of the Milan area and the concentration of CBZ was measured. Groundwater CBZ levels in both aquifers were associated with the demographic data within a circular buffer with a radius of 1.5 km. All data were analyzed using a multivariate statistical approach. The results showed a significant association (p < 0.05) between CBZ concentrations and specific demographic segments of the population. Higher CBZ concentrations were found to be associated with the population aged 70 years and over (aging index), and with families having children aged under 5 years (family index). In addition, the divorce index was correlated with the high concentration of CBZ, whereas the educated and sexagenarian population showed a negative correlation. Our results indicated that the contamination of CBZ follows the same pattern in unconfined and semi-confined aquifers, which are used for drinking water purposes in Milan area. Therefore, changing the CBZ consumption pattern or replacing CBZ with other drugs may strongly influence groundwater contamination of the investigated area.

Carbamazepine levels related to the demographic indicators in groundwater of densely populated area

Ebrahimzadeh Salma;Azzellino Arianna
2021-01-01

Abstract

Consumption of pharmaceuticals by people is growing. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is an extensively used anti-epileptic drug that is recalcitrant to degradation. As a result, CBZ has been widely detected in the aquatic ecosystem due to its daily consumption and drainage in sewage systems. Leakages from sewage networks and septic tanks may represent one of the main sources of CBZ in groundwater. In this study, CBZ concentrations in groundwater and their correlations with the demographic structure of the population were investigated in the densely populated Milan urban area. Seventy-six demographic variables were retrieved from the Italian Population and Housing census. Twenty-one groundwater samples were collected from unconfined and semi-confined aquifers of the Milan area and the concentration of CBZ was measured. Groundwater CBZ levels in both aquifers were associated with the demographic data within a circular buffer with a radius of 1.5 km. All data were analyzed using a multivariate statistical approach. The results showed a significant association (p < 0.05) between CBZ concentrations and specific demographic segments of the population. Higher CBZ concentrations were found to be associated with the population aged 70 years and over (aging index), and with families having children aged under 5 years (family index). In addition, the divorce index was correlated with the high concentration of CBZ, whereas the educated and sexagenarian population showed a negative correlation. Our results indicated that the contamination of CBZ follows the same pattern in unconfined and semi-confined aquifers, which are used for drinking water purposes in Milan area. Therefore, changing the CBZ consumption pattern or replacing CBZ with other drugs may strongly influence groundwater contamination of the investigated area.
Carbamazepine; Demographic information; Multivariate statistical analysis; Pharmaceutical pollution
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11311/1217322
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