Purpose – Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) of the U.S. government ensures that all health and safety regulations, protecting the workers, are enforced. OSHA officers conduct inspections and assess fines for non-compliance and regulatory violations. Literature discussion on the economic impact of OSHA inspections with COVID-19 related citations for the construction sector is lacking. This study aims to investigate the relationships between the number of COVID-19 cases, construction employment and OSHA citations and it further evaluates the total and monthly predicted cost impact of OSHA citations associated with COVID-19 violations. Design/methodology/approach – An application of multiple regression analysis, a supervised machine learning linear regression model, based on K-fold cross validation sampling and a probabilistic risk-based cost estimate Monte Carlo simulation were utilized to evaluate the data. The data were collected from numerous websites including OSHA, Centers for Disease Control and the World Health Organization. Findings – The results show that as the monthly construction employment increased, there was a decrease in OSHA citations. Conversely, the cost impact of OSHA citations had a positive relationship with the number of COVID-19 cases. In addition, the monthly cost impact of OSHA COVID-19 related citations along with the total cost impact of citations were predicted and analyzed. Originality/value – The application of the two models on cost analysis provides a thorough comparison of predicted and overall cost impact, which can assist the contractors to better understand the possible cost ramifications. Based on the findings, it is suggested that the contractors include contingency fees within their contracts, hire safety managers to implement specific safety protocols related to COVID-19 and request a safety action plan when qualifying their subcontractors to avoid potential fines and citations. Keywords COVID-19, Construction industry, Monte Carlo simulation, Machine learning, Cost analysis, OSHA, Safety, Risk management, Risk-based cost estimate

Predicting the trends and cost impact of COVID-19 OSHA citations on US construction contractors using machine learning and simulation

Hooman Sadeh;Claudio Mirarchi;Alberto Pavan
2022

Abstract

Purpose – Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) of the U.S. government ensures that all health and safety regulations, protecting the workers, are enforced. OSHA officers conduct inspections and assess fines for non-compliance and regulatory violations. Literature discussion on the economic impact of OSHA inspections with COVID-19 related citations for the construction sector is lacking. This study aims to investigate the relationships between the number of COVID-19 cases, construction employment and OSHA citations and it further evaluates the total and monthly predicted cost impact of OSHA citations associated with COVID-19 violations. Design/methodology/approach – An application of multiple regression analysis, a supervised machine learning linear regression model, based on K-fold cross validation sampling and a probabilistic risk-based cost estimate Monte Carlo simulation were utilized to evaluate the data. The data were collected from numerous websites including OSHA, Centers for Disease Control and the World Health Organization. Findings – The results show that as the monthly construction employment increased, there was a decrease in OSHA citations. Conversely, the cost impact of OSHA citations had a positive relationship with the number of COVID-19 cases. In addition, the monthly cost impact of OSHA COVID-19 related citations along with the total cost impact of citations were predicted and analyzed. Originality/value – The application of the two models on cost analysis provides a thorough comparison of predicted and overall cost impact, which can assist the contractors to better understand the possible cost ramifications. Based on the findings, it is suggested that the contractors include contingency fees within their contracts, hire safety managers to implement specific safety protocols related to COVID-19 and request a safety action plan when qualifying their subcontractors to avoid potential fines and citations. Keywords COVID-19, Construction industry, Monte Carlo simulation, Machine learning, Cost analysis, OSHA, Safety, Risk management, Risk-based cost estimate
COVID-19 Risk Management Machine Learning Safety Cost Analysis Citations
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11311/1211380
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