Background: International guidelines suggest using a higher (> 10 cm H2O) positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in patients with moderate-to-severe ARDS due to COVID-19. However, even if oxygenation generally improves with a higher PEEP, compliance, and PaCO2 frequently do not, as if recruitment was small. Research Question: Is the potential for lung recruitment small in patients with early ARDS due to COVID-19? Study Design and Methods: Forty patients with ARDS due to COVID-19 were studied in the supine position within 3 days of endotracheal intubation. They all underwent a PEEP trial, in which oxygenation, compliance, and PaCO2 were measured with 5, 10, and 15 cm H2O of PEEP, and all other ventilatory settings unchanged. Twenty underwent a whole-lung static CT scan at 5 and 45 cm H2O, and the other 20 at 5 and 15 cm H2O of airway pressure. Recruitment and hyperinflation were defined as a decrease in the volume of the non-aerated (density above −100 HU) and an increase in the volume of the over-aerated (density below −900 HU) lung compartments, respectively. Results: From 5 to 15 cm H2O, oxygenation improved in 36 (90%) patients but compliance only in 11 (28%) and Paco2 only in 14 (35%). From 5 to 45 cm H2O, recruitment was 351 (161-462) mL and hyperinflation 465 (220-681) mL. From 5 to 15 cm H2O, recruitment was 168 (110-202) mL and hyperinflation 121 (63-270) mL. Hyperinflation variably developed in all patients and exceeded recruitment in more than half of them. Interpretation: Patients with early ARDS due to COVID-19, ventilated in the supine position, present with a large potential for lung recruitment. Even so, their compliance and PaCO2 do not generally improve with a higher PEEP, possibly because of hyperinflation.

Lung Response to a Higher Positive End-Expiratory Pressure in Mechanically Ventilated Patients With COVID-19

Pennati F.;Aliverti A.;
2022

Abstract

Background: International guidelines suggest using a higher (> 10 cm H2O) positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in patients with moderate-to-severe ARDS due to COVID-19. However, even if oxygenation generally improves with a higher PEEP, compliance, and PaCO2 frequently do not, as if recruitment was small. Research Question: Is the potential for lung recruitment small in patients with early ARDS due to COVID-19? Study Design and Methods: Forty patients with ARDS due to COVID-19 were studied in the supine position within 3 days of endotracheal intubation. They all underwent a PEEP trial, in which oxygenation, compliance, and PaCO2 were measured with 5, 10, and 15 cm H2O of PEEP, and all other ventilatory settings unchanged. Twenty underwent a whole-lung static CT scan at 5 and 45 cm H2O, and the other 20 at 5 and 15 cm H2O of airway pressure. Recruitment and hyperinflation were defined as a decrease in the volume of the non-aerated (density above −100 HU) and an increase in the volume of the over-aerated (density below −900 HU) lung compartments, respectively. Results: From 5 to 15 cm H2O, oxygenation improved in 36 (90%) patients but compliance only in 11 (28%) and Paco2 only in 14 (35%). From 5 to 45 cm H2O, recruitment was 351 (161-462) mL and hyperinflation 465 (220-681) mL. From 5 to 15 cm H2O, recruitment was 168 (110-202) mL and hyperinflation 121 (63-270) mL. Hyperinflation variably developed in all patients and exceeded recruitment in more than half of them. Interpretation: Patients with early ARDS due to COVID-19, ventilated in the supine position, present with a large potential for lung recruitment. Even so, their compliance and PaCO2 do not generally improve with a higher PEEP, possibly because of hyperinflation.
acute respiratory distress syndrome
coronavirus disease 2019
mechanical ventilation
positive end-expiratory pressure
Humans
Lung
Positive-Pressure Respiration
Respiration, Artificial
COVID-19
Respiratory Distress Syndrome
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11311/1210533
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