Cancer is considered one of the most threatening diseases worldwide. Although many therapeutic approaches have been developed and optimized for ameliorating patient’s conditions and life expectancy, how-ever, it frequently remains an incurable pathology. Notably, conventional treatments may reveal inefficient in the presence of metastasis development, multidrug resistance and inability to achieve targeted drug delivery. In the last decades, nanomedicine has gained a prominent role, due to many properties ascribable to nanomateri-als. It is worth mentioning their small size, their ability to be loaded with small drugs and bioactive molecules and the possibility to be functionalized for tumor targeting. Natural vehicles have been exploited, such as exosomes, and designed, such as liposomes. Biomimetic nanomaterials have been engineered, by modification with biological membrane coating. Several nanoparticles have already entered clinical trials and some liposomal formulations have been approved for therapeutic applications. In this review, natural and synthetic nanocarriers functionalized for actively targeting cancer cells will be described, focusing on their advantages with respect to conventional treatments. Recent innovations related to biomimetic nanoparticles camouflaged with membranes isolated from different types of cells will be reported, together with their promising applications. Finally, a short overview on the latest advances in carrier-free nanomaterials will be provided.

Smart nanocarriers for targeted cancer therapy

Martinelli C.
2021

Abstract

Cancer is considered one of the most threatening diseases worldwide. Although many therapeutic approaches have been developed and optimized for ameliorating patient’s conditions and life expectancy, how-ever, it frequently remains an incurable pathology. Notably, conventional treatments may reveal inefficient in the presence of metastasis development, multidrug resistance and inability to achieve targeted drug delivery. In the last decades, nanomedicine has gained a prominent role, due to many properties ascribable to nanomateri-als. It is worth mentioning their small size, their ability to be loaded with small drugs and bioactive molecules and the possibility to be functionalized for tumor targeting. Natural vehicles have been exploited, such as exosomes, and designed, such as liposomes. Biomimetic nanomaterials have been engineered, by modification with biological membrane coating. Several nanoparticles have already entered clinical trials and some liposomal formulations have been approved for therapeutic applications. In this review, natural and synthetic nanocarriers functionalized for actively targeting cancer cells will be described, focusing on their advantages with respect to conventional treatments. Recent innovations related to biomimetic nanoparticles camouflaged with membranes isolated from different types of cells will be reported, together with their promising applications. Finally, a short overview on the latest advances in carrier-free nanomaterials will be provided.
Active targeting
Biomimetic nanomaterials
Cancer
Clinical trials
Smart nanocarriers
Targeted therapy
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11311/1207489
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