Tetrapyrroles are the basis of essential physiological functions in most living organisms. These compounds represent the basic scaffold of porphyrins, chlorophylls, and bacteriochlorophylls, among others. Chlorophyll derivatives, obtained by the natural or artificial degradation of chlorophylls, present unique properties, holding great potential in the scientific and medical fields. Indeed, they can act as cancer-preventing agents, antimutagens, apoptosis inducers, efficient antioxidants, as well as antimicrobial and immunomodulatory molecules. Moreover, thanks to their peculiar optical properties, they can be exploited as photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy and as vision enhancers. Most of these molecules, however, are highly hydrophobic and poorly soluble in biological fluids, and may display undesired toxicity due to accumulation in healthy tissues. The advent of nanomedicine has prompted the development of nanoparticles acting as carriers for chlorophyll derivatives, facilitating their targeted administration with demonstrated applicability in diagnosis and therapy. In this review, the chemical and physical properties of chlorophyll derivatives that justify their usage in the biomedical field, with particular regard to light-activated dynamics are described. Their role as antioxidants and photoactive agents are discussed, introducing the most recent nanomedical applications and focusing on inorganic and organic nanocarriers exploited in vitro and in vivo.

Light-Activated Biomedical Applications of Chlorophyll Derivatives

Martinelli C.;Desii A.;
2021-01-01

Abstract

Tetrapyrroles are the basis of essential physiological functions in most living organisms. These compounds represent the basic scaffold of porphyrins, chlorophylls, and bacteriochlorophylls, among others. Chlorophyll derivatives, obtained by the natural or artificial degradation of chlorophylls, present unique properties, holding great potential in the scientific and medical fields. Indeed, they can act as cancer-preventing agents, antimutagens, apoptosis inducers, efficient antioxidants, as well as antimicrobial and immunomodulatory molecules. Moreover, thanks to their peculiar optical properties, they can be exploited as photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy and as vision enhancers. Most of these molecules, however, are highly hydrophobic and poorly soluble in biological fluids, and may display undesired toxicity due to accumulation in healthy tissues. The advent of nanomedicine has prompted the development of nanoparticles acting as carriers for chlorophyll derivatives, facilitating their targeted administration with demonstrated applicability in diagnosis and therapy. In this review, the chemical and physical properties of chlorophyll derivatives that justify their usage in the biomedical field, with particular regard to light-activated dynamics are described. Their role as antioxidants and photoactive agents are discussed, introducing the most recent nanomedical applications and focusing on inorganic and organic nanocarriers exploited in vitro and in vivo.
2021
chlorophyll derivatives
nanomedicine
photoactive agents
photodynamic therapy
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11311/1205823
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