In recent research, fully supervised Deep Learning (DL) techniques and large amounts of pointwise labels are employed to train a segmentation network to be applied to buildings' point clouds. However, fine-labelled buildings' point clouds are hard to find and manually annotating pointwise labels is time-consuming and expensive. Consequently, the application of fully supervised DL for semantic segmentation of buildings' point clouds at LoD3 level is severely limited. To address this issue, we propose a novel label-efficient DL network that obtains per-point semantic labels of LoD3 buildings' point clouds with limited supervision. In general, it consists of two steps. The first step (Autoencoder - AE) is composed of a Dynamic Graph Convolutional Neural Network-based encoder and a folding-based decoder, designed to extract discriminative global and local features from input point clouds by reconstructing them without any label. The second step is semantic segmentation. By supplying a small amount of task-specific supervision, a segmentation network is proposed for semantically segmenting the encoded features acquired from the pre-trained AE. Experimentally, we evaluate our approach based on the ArCH dataset. Compared to the fully supervised DL methods, we find that our model achieved state-of-the-art results on the unseen scenes, with only 10% of labelled training data from fully supervised methods as input.

Label-efficient deep learning-based semantic segmentation of building point clouds at LOD3 level

Cao Y.;Scaioni M.
2021

Abstract

In recent research, fully supervised Deep Learning (DL) techniques and large amounts of pointwise labels are employed to train a segmentation network to be applied to buildings' point clouds. However, fine-labelled buildings' point clouds are hard to find and manually annotating pointwise labels is time-consuming and expensive. Consequently, the application of fully supervised DL for semantic segmentation of buildings' point clouds at LoD3 level is severely limited. To address this issue, we propose a novel label-efficient DL network that obtains per-point semantic labels of LoD3 buildings' point clouds with limited supervision. In general, it consists of two steps. The first step (Autoencoder - AE) is composed of a Dynamic Graph Convolutional Neural Network-based encoder and a folding-based decoder, designed to extract discriminative global and local features from input point clouds by reconstructing them without any label. The second step is semantic segmentation. By supplying a small amount of task-specific supervision, a segmentation network is proposed for semantically segmenting the encoded features acquired from the pre-trained AE. Experimentally, we evaluate our approach based on the ArCH dataset. Compared to the fully supervised DL methods, we find that our model achieved state-of-the-art results on the unseen scenes, with only 10% of labelled training data from fully supervised methods as input.
International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives
3D Point Cloud
Autoencoder
Label-efficient
LoD3 Building
Unsupervised Deep Learning
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
isprs-archives-XLIII-B2-2021-449-2021.pdf

accesso aperto

: Publisher’s version
Dimensione 1.49 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
1.49 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11311/1205225
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 1
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact