We propose a machine learning-based method to build a system of differential equations that approximates the dynamics of 3D electromechanical models for the human heart, accounting for the dependence on a set of parameters. Specifically, our method permits to create a reduced-order model (ROM), written as a system of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) wherein the forcing term, given by the right-hand side, consists of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN), that possibly depends on a set of parameters associated with the electromechanical model to be surrogated. This method is non-intrusive, as it only requires a collection of pressure and volume transients obtained from the full-order model (FOM) of cardiac electromechanics. Once trained, the ANN-based ROM can be coupled with hemodynamic models for the blood circulation external to the heart, in the same manner as the original electromechanical model, but at a dramatically lower computational cost. Indeed, our method allows for real-time numerical simulations of the cardiac function. Our results show that the ANN-based ROM is accurate with respect to the FOM (relative error between 1e−3 and 1e−2 for biomarkers of clinical interest), while requiring very small training datasets (30–40 samples). We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method on two relevant contexts in cardiac modeling. First, we employ the ANN-based ROM to perform a global sensitivity analysis on both the electromechanical and hemodynamic models. Second, we perform a Bayesian estimation of two parameters starting from noisy measurements of two scalar outputs. In both these cases, replacing the FOM of cardiac electromechanics with the ANN-based ROM makes it possible to perform in a few hours of computational time all the numerical simulations that would be otherwise unaffordable, because of their overwhelming computational cost, if carried out with the FOM. As a matter of fact, our ANN-based ROM is able to speedup the numerical simulations by more than three orders of magnitude.

A machine learning method for real-time numerical simulations of cardiac electromechanics

Regazzoni, F.;Salvador, M.;Dede’, Luca;Quarteroni, A.
2022

Abstract

We propose a machine learning-based method to build a system of differential equations that approximates the dynamics of 3D electromechanical models for the human heart, accounting for the dependence on a set of parameters. Specifically, our method permits to create a reduced-order model (ROM), written as a system of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) wherein the forcing term, given by the right-hand side, consists of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN), that possibly depends on a set of parameters associated with the electromechanical model to be surrogated. This method is non-intrusive, as it only requires a collection of pressure and volume transients obtained from the full-order model (FOM) of cardiac electromechanics. Once trained, the ANN-based ROM can be coupled with hemodynamic models for the blood circulation external to the heart, in the same manner as the original electromechanical model, but at a dramatically lower computational cost. Indeed, our method allows for real-time numerical simulations of the cardiac function. Our results show that the ANN-based ROM is accurate with respect to the FOM (relative error between 1e−3 and 1e−2 for biomarkers of clinical interest), while requiring very small training datasets (30–40 samples). We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method on two relevant contexts in cardiac modeling. First, we employ the ANN-based ROM to perform a global sensitivity analysis on both the electromechanical and hemodynamic models. Second, we perform a Bayesian estimation of two parameters starting from noisy measurements of two scalar outputs. In both these cases, replacing the FOM of cardiac electromechanics with the ANN-based ROM makes it possible to perform in a few hours of computational time all the numerical simulations that would be otherwise unaffordable, because of their overwhelming computational cost, if carried out with the FOM. As a matter of fact, our ANN-based ROM is able to speedup the numerical simulations by more than three orders of magnitude.
Cardiac electromechanics
Baysian Parameter Estimation
Global sensitivity analysis
Reduced Order Modeling
Machine learning
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11311/1205216
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