More than one million new cases of prostate cancer (PCa) were reported worldwide in 2020, and a significant increase of PCa incidence up to 2040 is estimated. Despite potential treatability in early stages, PCa diagnosis is challenging because of late symptoms’ onset and limits of current screening procedures. It has been now accepted that cell transformation leads to release of volatile organic compounds in biologic fluids, including urine. Thus, several studies proposed the possibility to develop new diagnostic tools based on urine analysis. Among these, electronic noses (eNoses) represent one of the most promising devices, because of their potential to provide a non-invasive diagnosis. Here we describe the approach aimed at defining the experimental protocol for eNose application for PCa diagnosis. Our research investigates effects of sample preparation and analysis on eNose responses and repeatability. The dependence of eNose diagnostic performance on urine portion analysed, techniques involved for extracting urine volatiles and conditioning temperature were analysed. 192 subjects (132 PCa patients and 60 controls) were involved. The developed experimental protocol has resulted in accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of 83% (CI95% 77–89), 82% (CI95% 73–88) and 87% (CI95% 75–94), respectively. Our findings define eNoses as valuable diagnostic tool allowing rapid and non-invasive PCa diagnosis.

Optimization of training and measurement protocol for eNose analysis of urine headspace aimed at prostate cancer diagnosis

Capelli L.;Bax C.;
2021-01-01

Abstract

More than one million new cases of prostate cancer (PCa) were reported worldwide in 2020, and a significant increase of PCa incidence up to 2040 is estimated. Despite potential treatability in early stages, PCa diagnosis is challenging because of late symptoms’ onset and limits of current screening procedures. It has been now accepted that cell transformation leads to release of volatile organic compounds in biologic fluids, including urine. Thus, several studies proposed the possibility to develop new diagnostic tools based on urine analysis. Among these, electronic noses (eNoses) represent one of the most promising devices, because of their potential to provide a non-invasive diagnosis. Here we describe the approach aimed at defining the experimental protocol for eNose application for PCa diagnosis. Our research investigates effects of sample preparation and analysis on eNose responses and repeatability. The dependence of eNose diagnostic performance on urine portion analysed, techniques involved for extracting urine volatiles and conditioning temperature were analysed. 192 subjects (132 PCa patients and 60 controls) were involved. The developed experimental protocol has resulted in accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of 83% (CI95% 77–89), 82% (CI95% 73–88) and 87% (CI95% 75–94), respectively. Our findings define eNoses as valuable diagnostic tool allowing rapid and non-invasive PCa diagnosis.
2021
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Electronic Nose
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Prostate
Prostatic Neoplasms
Sensitivity and Specificity
Urine
Volatile Organic Compounds
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11311/1203696
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