The hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) group is composed of 187 chemicals that are known to be potentially carcinogenic and dangerous for human health. Due to their toxicological impact, HAPs are an increasingly studied class of compounds. Of the different HAPs sources, refineries are one of the major sources. In order to obtain a preliminary assessment of the impact of a refinery in terms of emissions, a useful instrument is the determination of the emission factor (EF). For this reason, this work, focusing on the USA refining scenario, aims to provide evidence for a generic trend in refinery emissions to evaluate a correlation between the plant size and the amount of its emissions, in particular the HAPs emissions. Based on the analysis of the data collected from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), a general trend in the emissions from refinery plants was established, showing a positive correlation between the HAPs emissions and the refinery size, represented by a value of the Pearson correlation coefficient r close to 1. Once this correlation was highlighted, a purpose of this work became the estimation of an organic HAPs emission factor (EF): from a whole refining plant, the EF of the total organic HAPs is equal to 10 g emitted for each ton of crude oil processed. Moreover, it was also possible to undertake the same evaluation for two specific HAP molecules: benzene and formaldehyde. The benzene and formaldehyde EFs are equal to, respectively, 0.8 g and 0.2 g for each ton of processed crude oil. This work provides a simple rule of thumb for the estimation of hazardous substances emitted from petroleum refineries in their mean operating conditions.

Estimation of emission factors for hazardous air pollutants from petroleum refineries

Polvara E.;Roveda L.;Invernizzi M.;Capelli L.;Sironi S.
2021

Abstract

The hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) group is composed of 187 chemicals that are known to be potentially carcinogenic and dangerous for human health. Due to their toxicological impact, HAPs are an increasingly studied class of compounds. Of the different HAPs sources, refineries are one of the major sources. In order to obtain a preliminary assessment of the impact of a refinery in terms of emissions, a useful instrument is the determination of the emission factor (EF). For this reason, this work, focusing on the USA refining scenario, aims to provide evidence for a generic trend in refinery emissions to evaluate a correlation between the plant size and the amount of its emissions, in particular the HAPs emissions. Based on the analysis of the data collected from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), a general trend in the emissions from refinery plants was established, showing a positive correlation between the HAPs emissions and the refinery size, represented by a value of the Pearson correlation coefficient r close to 1. Once this correlation was highlighted, a purpose of this work became the estimation of an organic HAPs emission factor (EF): from a whole refining plant, the EF of the total organic HAPs is equal to 10 g emitted for each ton of crude oil processed. Moreover, it was also possible to undertake the same evaluation for two specific HAP molecules: benzene and formaldehyde. The benzene and formaldehyde EFs are equal to, respectively, 0.8 g and 0.2 g for each ton of processed crude oil. This work provides a simple rule of thumb for the estimation of hazardous substances emitted from petroleum refineries in their mean operating conditions.
Benzene
Crude oil process
Formaldehyde
Prediction of emission levels
Refinery emissions
VOC emissions
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11311/1203694
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