Climate change, driven by greenhouse gas emissions, is a growing global concern, threatening world-wide environment, health and economy. Energy needs for buildings are a large source of greenhouse gas emissions. As the energy needs of buildings strongly depends on weather patterns, this paper investigates how climate change may impact building heating and cooling loads, cost-optimal efficiency measures, and renewable energy production. Eight locations (Stockholm, Milan, Vienna, Madrid, Paris, Munich, Lisbon, and Rome) highlight differences among European climates. Weather datasets, commonly used in building energy simulations, are evaluated to see how climatic parameters have changed over recent decades. A future climate change scenario (with uncertainties) is analyzed for the year 2060. Weather files are used to drive building energy simulations for a standard baseline and a (Nearly Zero Energy Building) NZEB residential building whose design is improved using a cost-optimization approach. The analysis indicates most currently available weather datasets cannot assure reliable results with building simulations. We find the energy balance in European buildings will significantly change under future conditions: heating will decrease by 38%–57%, while cooling will increase by +99%–380% depending on location. In future NZEBs, efficiency measures to reduce cooling needs and overheating will be favored (e.g. roof insulation, window type, solar shading, envelope finishes), illustrating how improving energy efficiency will be more crucial within climate change scenarios. Compared to the baseline, more efficient NZEBs will enable renewable energy to much better cover building needs. There will also be advantages from reducing winter and summer peak demand, particularly when coupled to short-term electrical storage. When solar resource is limited in winter, more airtight, better-insulated NZEBs improve PV self-consumption.

How will future climate impact the design and performance of nearly zero energy buildings (NZEBs)?

Epifani I.;
2022

Abstract

Climate change, driven by greenhouse gas emissions, is a growing global concern, threatening world-wide environment, health and economy. Energy needs for buildings are a large source of greenhouse gas emissions. As the energy needs of buildings strongly depends on weather patterns, this paper investigates how climate change may impact building heating and cooling loads, cost-optimal efficiency measures, and renewable energy production. Eight locations (Stockholm, Milan, Vienna, Madrid, Paris, Munich, Lisbon, and Rome) highlight differences among European climates. Weather datasets, commonly used in building energy simulations, are evaluated to see how climatic parameters have changed over recent decades. A future climate change scenario (with uncertainties) is analyzed for the year 2060. Weather files are used to drive building energy simulations for a standard baseline and a (Nearly Zero Energy Building) NZEB residential building whose design is improved using a cost-optimization approach. The analysis indicates most currently available weather datasets cannot assure reliable results with building simulations. We find the energy balance in European buildings will significantly change under future conditions: heating will decrease by 38%–57%, while cooling will increase by +99%–380% depending on location. In future NZEBs, efficiency measures to reduce cooling needs and overheating will be favored (e.g. roof insulation, window type, solar shading, envelope finishes), illustrating how improving energy efficiency will be more crucial within climate change scenarios. Compared to the baseline, more efficient NZEBs will enable renewable energy to much better cover building needs. There will also be advantages from reducing winter and summer peak demand, particularly when coupled to short-term electrical storage. When solar resource is limited in winter, more airtight, better-insulated NZEBs improve PV self-consumption.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11311/1200328
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