Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) is an Additive Manufacturing (AM) process that builds up a part via layer by layer deposition of polymeric material. The purpose of this study is to implement viscosity and density models for improving the assessment of melt flow behavior inside the nozzle during deposition. Numerical simulations are carried out for different combinations of important process parameters like extrusion velocity V-e, extrusion temperature T-e, and filament material (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) and Polylactic Acid (PLA)). Cross-Williams-Landel-Ferry (Cross-WLF) viscosity and Pressure-Volume-Temperature (PVT) density models are incorporated to get realistic results. Distribution of printing parameters like pressure, temperature, velocity and viscosity inside the nozzle are observed at steady state and their relationship with the print quality is discussed. Effect of the PVT model on polymer deposition is illustrated by comparing it with deposition considering a constant density. Velocity profiles are obtained for the different cases considered and locations where the flow is fully developed, along the axial distance of the nozzle, are determined and termed as stable zones. A direct correlation between the position of the developed melt flow profile and printing quality is established and the best combination of printing parameters is proposed for ABS and PLA. Extended stable zones are obtained for the polymer melt in the nozzle at V-e = 60 mm/s, T-e = 220 degrees C for ABS and V-e = 30 mm/s and T-e = 195 degrees C for PLA and hence, these can be considered as the optimum values of the printing parameters.

Implementation of viscosity and density models for improved numerical analysis of melt flow dynamics in the nozzle during extrusion-based additive manufacturing

Mishra, Ases Akas;Momin, Affaf;Strano, Matteo;Rane, Kedarnath
2022-01-01

Abstract

Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) is an Additive Manufacturing (AM) process that builds up a part via layer by layer deposition of polymeric material. The purpose of this study is to implement viscosity and density models for improving the assessment of melt flow behavior inside the nozzle during deposition. Numerical simulations are carried out for different combinations of important process parameters like extrusion velocity V-e, extrusion temperature T-e, and filament material (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) and Polylactic Acid (PLA)). Cross-Williams-Landel-Ferry (Cross-WLF) viscosity and Pressure-Volume-Temperature (PVT) density models are incorporated to get realistic results. Distribution of printing parameters like pressure, temperature, velocity and viscosity inside the nozzle are observed at steady state and their relationship with the print quality is discussed. Effect of the PVT model on polymer deposition is illustrated by comparing it with deposition considering a constant density. Velocity profiles are obtained for the different cases considered and locations where the flow is fully developed, along the axial distance of the nozzle, are determined and termed as stable zones. A direct correlation between the position of the developed melt flow profile and printing quality is established and the best combination of printing parameters is proposed for ABS and PLA. Extended stable zones are obtained for the polymer melt in the nozzle at V-e = 60 mm/s, T-e = 220 degrees C for ABS and V-e = 30 mm/s and T-e = 195 degrees C for PLA and hence, these can be considered as the optimum values of the printing parameters.
2022
Fused filament fabrication
Stable zone
Nozzle
Printing parameters
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11311/1197764
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