The chips contained in any electronic device are manufactured over circular silicon wafers, which are monitored by inspection machines at different production stages. Inspection machines detect and locate any defect within the wafer and return a Wafer Defect Map (WDM), i.e., a list of the coordinates where defects lie, which can be considered a huge, sparse, and binary image. In normal conditions, wafers exhibit a small number of randomly distributed defects, while defects grouped in specific patterns might indicate known or novel categories of failures in the production line. Needless to say, a primary concern of semiconductor industries is to identify these patterns and intervene as soon as possible to restore normal production conditions. Here we address WDM monitoring as an open-set recognition problem, where the aim is to classify WDM in known categories and promptly detect novel patterns. In particular, we propose a comprehensive pipeline for wafer monitoring based on a Submanifold Sparse Convolutional Network, a deep architecture designed to process sparse data at an arbitrary resolution, which is trained on the known classes. To detect novelties, we define an outlier detector based on a Gaussian Mixture Model fitted on the latent representation of the classifier. Our experiments on a real dataset of WDMs show that directly processing full-resolution WDMs by Submanifold Sparse Convolutions yields superior classification performance on known classes than traditional Convolutional Neural Networks, which require a preliminary binning to reduce the size of the binary images representing WDMs. Moreover, our solution outperforms state-of-the-art open-set recognition solutions in novelty detection.

Deep Open-Set Recognition for Silicon Wafer Production Monitoring

Luca Frittoli;Diego Carrera;Giacomo Boracchi
2021-01-01

Abstract

The chips contained in any electronic device are manufactured over circular silicon wafers, which are monitored by inspection machines at different production stages. Inspection machines detect and locate any defect within the wafer and return a Wafer Defect Map (WDM), i.e., a list of the coordinates where defects lie, which can be considered a huge, sparse, and binary image. In normal conditions, wafers exhibit a small number of randomly distributed defects, while defects grouped in specific patterns might indicate known or novel categories of failures in the production line. Needless to say, a primary concern of semiconductor industries is to identify these patterns and intervene as soon as possible to restore normal production conditions. Here we address WDM monitoring as an open-set recognition problem, where the aim is to classify WDM in known categories and promptly detect novel patterns. In particular, we propose a comprehensive pipeline for wafer monitoring based on a Submanifold Sparse Convolutional Network, a deep architecture designed to process sparse data at an arbitrary resolution, which is trained on the known classes. To detect novelties, we define an outlier detector based on a Gaussian Mixture Model fitted on the latent representation of the classifier. Our experiments on a real dataset of WDMs show that directly processing full-resolution WDMs by Submanifold Sparse Convolutions yields superior classification performance on known classes than traditional Convolutional Neural Networks, which require a preliminary binning to reduce the size of the binary images representing WDMs. Moreover, our solution outperforms state-of-the-art open-set recognition solutions in novelty detection.
2021
Pattern classification, Open-set recognition, Sparse convolutions, Quality inspection, Wafer monitoring
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
2021_PR_Wafer_Monitoring_final_preprint.pdf

Open Access dal 02/04/2024

Descrizione: Articolo principale
: Post-Print (DRAFT o Author’s Accepted Manuscript-AAM)
Dimensione 2.67 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
2.67 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11311/1193179
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 16
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 9
social impact