In laser metal deposition (LMD) the height of the deposited track can vary within and between layers, causing significant deviations during the process evolution. Previous works have shown that in certain conditions a self-stabilizing mechanism occurs, maintaining a regular height growth and a constant standoff distance between the part and the deposition nozzle. Here we analyze the link between the powder catchment efficiency and the deposition height stability. To this purpose, a monitoring system was developed to study the deposition in different process conditions, using inline measurements of the specimen weight in combination with the layer height information obatined with coaxial optical triangulation. An analytical model was used to estimate the deposition efficiency in real-time from the height monitoring and the process parameters, which was verified by the direct mass measurements. The results show that the track height stabilization is associated to a reduction of the powder catchment efficiency, which is governed by the melt pool relative position with respect to the powder cone and the laser beam. For a given set of parameters, the standoff distance can be estimated to achieve the highest powder catchment efficiency and a regular height through the build direction.

Interplay between powder catchment efficiency and layer height in self-stabilized laser metal deposition

Simone Donadello;Valentina Furlan;Ali Gökhan Demir;Barbara Previtali
2022-01-01

Abstract

In laser metal deposition (LMD) the height of the deposited track can vary within and between layers, causing significant deviations during the process evolution. Previous works have shown that in certain conditions a self-stabilizing mechanism occurs, maintaining a regular height growth and a constant standoff distance between the part and the deposition nozzle. Here we analyze the link between the powder catchment efficiency and the deposition height stability. To this purpose, a monitoring system was developed to study the deposition in different process conditions, using inline measurements of the specimen weight in combination with the layer height information obatined with coaxial optical triangulation. An analytical model was used to estimate the deposition efficiency in real-time from the height monitoring and the process parameters, which was verified by the direct mass measurements. The results show that the track height stabilization is associated to a reduction of the powder catchment efficiency, which is governed by the melt pool relative position with respect to the powder cone and the laser beam. For a given set of parameters, the standoff distance can be estimated to achieve the highest powder catchment efficiency and a regular height through the build direction.
2022
Laser metal deposition, Additive manufacturing, Process monitoring, Deposition efficiency, Process stability, Optical metrology
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11311/1189287
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