Recent developments of Middle Eastern metropolitans, and the related soaring trend of population increase, is contemporary with the impacts of climate changes. This applies extra pressures to the centralized large-scale water treatment and distribution systems. Rainwater harvesting (RWH) for domestic urban activities can be a sustainable option of adapting with the rising demand of soft water in such an arid/semiarid area. A pilot system of rainwater draining and storage was constructed for alleviating parts of soft water scarcity in Mashhad, the second most populous city of Iran. Measurements were collected for two years at the drainage basin outlet and inside of a storage tank, which has been equipped for water harvesting purposes. We performed some preliminary stochastic analysis and evaluated probabilistic properties of the collected dataset, aiming to explain them with respect to the physical characteristics of the RWH system. Data clustering analysis confirmed that the quality of the water may change during rainwater draining and storage in the RWH tank. Particularly, sodium content of the sampled water in the drainage catchment illustrated higher variations, compared with the ones evaluated for the stored water in the reservoir tank. This can confirm that the quality of the stored water in the RWH reservoir is more stable than that obtained for each separate rainfall–runoff event. We assessed the potential of the harvested water in different consumption contexts, in light of some national and international water quality (physicochemical, biological, and toxic pollutants) guidelines. We relied on water quality indices (WQI) to interpret multiparametric properties of the collected rainwater from urban surfaces; consequently, the quality of the harvested water was categorized with moderate to almost good attributes. This makes it well suited for irrigation uses, which can play a relevant role against water shortages in the analyzed semiarid urban region. Otherwise, infiltration and treatments need to be performed if using harvested water for drinking consumptions (of human or livestock), some of which may be costly for local owners/uses. We provide some suggestions for improving efficiency of the system and enhancing the quality of the harvesting water.

Feasibility of rainwater harvesting and consumption in a middle eastern Semiarid urban area

Ranaee E.;Ziyaee M.
2021-01-01

Abstract

Recent developments of Middle Eastern metropolitans, and the related soaring trend of population increase, is contemporary with the impacts of climate changes. This applies extra pressures to the centralized large-scale water treatment and distribution systems. Rainwater harvesting (RWH) for domestic urban activities can be a sustainable option of adapting with the rising demand of soft water in such an arid/semiarid area. A pilot system of rainwater draining and storage was constructed for alleviating parts of soft water scarcity in Mashhad, the second most populous city of Iran. Measurements were collected for two years at the drainage basin outlet and inside of a storage tank, which has been equipped for water harvesting purposes. We performed some preliminary stochastic analysis and evaluated probabilistic properties of the collected dataset, aiming to explain them with respect to the physical characteristics of the RWH system. Data clustering analysis confirmed that the quality of the water may change during rainwater draining and storage in the RWH tank. Particularly, sodium content of the sampled water in the drainage catchment illustrated higher variations, compared with the ones evaluated for the stored water in the reservoir tank. This can confirm that the quality of the stored water in the RWH reservoir is more stable than that obtained for each separate rainfall–runoff event. We assessed the potential of the harvested water in different consumption contexts, in light of some national and international water quality (physicochemical, biological, and toxic pollutants) guidelines. We relied on water quality indices (WQI) to interpret multiparametric properties of the collected rainwater from urban surfaces; consequently, the quality of the harvested water was categorized with moderate to almost good attributes. This makes it well suited for irrigation uses, which can play a relevant role against water shortages in the analyzed semiarid urban region. Otherwise, infiltration and treatments need to be performed if using harvested water for drinking consumptions (of human or livestock), some of which may be costly for local owners/uses. We provide some suggestions for improving efficiency of the system and enhancing the quality of the harvesting water.
Climate coeffi-cient
Data-driven analysis
Semiarid region
Sustainable water supply
Urban rainwater harvesting
Water quality index
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11311/1189219
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