The investigation of bone damage processes is a crucial point to understand the mechanisms of age-related bone fractures. In order to reduce their impact, early diagnosis is key. The intricate architecture of bone and the complexity of multiscale damage processes make fracture prediction an ambitious goal. This review, supported by a detailed analysis of bone damage physical principles, aims at presenting a critical overview of how multiscale imaging techniques could be used to implement reliable and validated numerical tools for the study and prediction of bone fractures. While macro- and meso-scale imaging find applications in clinical practice, micro- and nano-scale imaging are commonly used only for research purposes, with the objective to extract fragility indexes. Those images are used as a source for multiscale computational damage models. As an example, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) images in combination with micro-finite element models could shed some light on the comprehension of the interaction between micro-cracks and micro-scale bone features. As future insights, the actual state of technology suggests that these models could be a potential substitute for invasive clinical practice for the prediction of age-related bone fractures. However, the translation to clinical practice requires experimental validation, which is still in progress.

A Review on Multiscale Bone Damage: From the Clinical to the Research Perspective

Buccino, Federica;Colombo, Chiara;Vergani, Laura Maria
2021

Abstract

The investigation of bone damage processes is a crucial point to understand the mechanisms of age-related bone fractures. In order to reduce their impact, early diagnosis is key. The intricate architecture of bone and the complexity of multiscale damage processes make fracture prediction an ambitious goal. This review, supported by a detailed analysis of bone damage physical principles, aims at presenting a critical overview of how multiscale imaging techniques could be used to implement reliable and validated numerical tools for the study and prediction of bone fractures. While macro- and meso-scale imaging find applications in clinical practice, micro- and nano-scale imaging are commonly used only for research purposes, with the objective to extract fragility indexes. Those images are used as a source for multiscale computational damage models. As an example, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) images in combination with micro-finite element models could shed some light on the comprehension of the interaction between micro-cracks and micro-scale bone features. As future insights, the actual state of technology suggests that these models could be a potential substitute for invasive clinical practice for the prediction of age-related bone fractures. However, the translation to clinical practice requires experimental validation, which is still in progress.
age-related bone fractures, bone damage, computational models, experimental validation, multiscale imaging
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11311/1188983
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