Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) is a 3D imaging technique, widely used in many applications such as augmented reality, automotive, machine vision, spacecraft navigation and landing. Achieving long‐ranges and high‐speed, most of all in outdoor applications with strong solar background illumination, are challenging requirements. In the introduction we review different 3D‐ranging techniques (stereo‐vision, projection with structured light, pulsed‐LiDAR, amplitude‐modulated continuous‐wave LiDAR, frequency‐modulated continuous‐wave interferometry), illumination schemes (single point and blade scanning, flash‐LiDAR) and time-resolved detectors for LiDAR (EM‐CCD, I‐CCD, APD, SPAD, SiPM). Then, we provide an extensive review of silicon‐ single photon avalanche diode (SPAD)‐based LiDAR detectors (both commercial products and research prototypes) analyzing how each architecture faces the main challenges of LiDAR (i.e., long ranges, centimeter resolution, large field‐of‐view and high angular resolution, high operation speed, background immunity, eye‐safety and multi‐camera operation). Recent progresses in 3D stacking technologies provided an important step forward in SPAD array development, allowing to reach smaller pitch, higher pixel count and more complex processing electronics. In the conclusions, we provide some guidelines for the design of next generation SPAD‐ LiDAR detectors.

Spads and sipms arrays for long‐range high‐speed light detection and ranging (Lidar)

Villa F.;Severini F.;Madonini F.;Zappa F.
2021

Abstract

Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) is a 3D imaging technique, widely used in many applications such as augmented reality, automotive, machine vision, spacecraft navigation and landing. Achieving long‐ranges and high‐speed, most of all in outdoor applications with strong solar background illumination, are challenging requirements. In the introduction we review different 3D‐ranging techniques (stereo‐vision, projection with structured light, pulsed‐LiDAR, amplitude‐modulated continuous‐wave LiDAR, frequency‐modulated continuous‐wave interferometry), illumination schemes (single point and blade scanning, flash‐LiDAR) and time-resolved detectors for LiDAR (EM‐CCD, I‐CCD, APD, SPAD, SiPM). Then, we provide an extensive review of silicon‐ single photon avalanche diode (SPAD)‐based LiDAR detectors (both commercial products and research prototypes) analyzing how each architecture faces the main challenges of LiDAR (i.e., long ranges, centimeter resolution, large field‐of‐view and high angular resolution, high operation speed, background immunity, eye‐safety and multi‐camera operation). Recent progresses in 3D stacking technologies provided an important step forward in SPAD array development, allowing to reach smaller pitch, higher pixel count and more complex processing electronics. In the conclusions, we provide some guidelines for the design of next generation SPAD‐ LiDAR detectors.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11311/1183854
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