Heterogeneous catalysts prepared from biomass waste sources are attracting increasing interest. The reasons rely on the possibility of combining the virtuous approach of circular economy with the consolidated advantages of heterogeneous catalysis, namely the recycling of the system and the possibility to drive selectivity towards desired products. Herein we report a highly porous cellulose-based nanosponge (CNS) and its use as a recoverable catalyst for Henry and Knoevenagel reactions, two classical amino-catalyzed transformations. The material is obtained by cross-linking between TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (TOCNF) and branched polyethyleneimine 25 kDa (bPEI) in the presence of citric acid. CNS have been developed as sorbent materials for water remediation but their use as heterogeneous catalysts was never investigated. The fully characterized micro- and nano-porous system guarantees a complete penetration of CNS, allowing reagents to diffuse within. Indeed, by modulating reaction conditions (catalyst loading, temperature, solvent, microwave versus conventional heating, relative ratio of reagents) it was possible to drive selectivity towards the desired products, while maintaining high efficiency in terms of conversion. The catalyst could be re-used several times without losing in catalytic efficiency. In most cases the products’ distribution is quite different from homogeneous conditions, this much more emphasizing the importance of this heterogeneous solution.

Co-Polymeric Nanosponges from Cellulose Biomass as Heterogeneous Catalysts for amine-catalyzed Organic Reactions

Riva L.;Punta C.;Sacchetti A.
2020

Abstract

Heterogeneous catalysts prepared from biomass waste sources are attracting increasing interest. The reasons rely on the possibility of combining the virtuous approach of circular economy with the consolidated advantages of heterogeneous catalysis, namely the recycling of the system and the possibility to drive selectivity towards desired products. Herein we report a highly porous cellulose-based nanosponge (CNS) and its use as a recoverable catalyst for Henry and Knoevenagel reactions, two classical amino-catalyzed transformations. The material is obtained by cross-linking between TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (TOCNF) and branched polyethyleneimine 25 kDa (bPEI) in the presence of citric acid. CNS have been developed as sorbent materials for water remediation but their use as heterogeneous catalysts was never investigated. The fully characterized micro- and nano-porous system guarantees a complete penetration of CNS, allowing reagents to diffuse within. Indeed, by modulating reaction conditions (catalyst loading, temperature, solvent, microwave versus conventional heating, relative ratio of reagents) it was possible to drive selectivity towards the desired products, while maintaining high efficiency in terms of conversion. The catalyst could be re-used several times without losing in catalytic efficiency. In most cases the products’ distribution is quite different from homogeneous conditions, this much more emphasizing the importance of this heterogeneous solution.
aerogels
Henry reaction
heterogeneous catalysis
Knoevenagel reaction
nanocellulose
polyethylenimine
reusable catalyst
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11311/1157812
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