Short-term events are one of the specific aspects that differentiate odour nuisance problems from conventional air quality pollutants. Atmospheric dispersion modelling has been considered the gold standard to realise odour impact assessments and to calculate separation distances. Most of these models provide predictions of concentrations of a pollutant in ambient air on an hourly basis. Even when the hourly mean odour concentration is lower than the perception threshold, concentration peaks above the threshold may occur during this period. The constant peak-to-mean factor is nowadays the most widespread method for evaluating short-term concentrations from the long-term ones. Different approaches have been proposed in the scientific literature to consider non-constant peak-to-mean factors. Two prominent approaches to do so are the i) variable peak-to-mean factor which considers the distance from the source and atmospheric stability and the ii) concentration-variance transport. In this sense, the aim of this work is to compare the results of three different freely available dispersion models (namely, CALPUFF, LAPMOD and GRAL), which implement three distinct ways to evaluate the short-term concentration values. Two sites, one in Austria and the other in Italy, were selected for the investigation. Dispersion model results were compared and discussed both in terms of long-term (hourly) concentrations and short-term. An important outcome of this work is that the dispersion models provided more equivalent results for hourly mean concentrations, in particular in the far-field. On the contrary, the method to evaluate short-term concentrations can deliver disparate results, thereby revealing a potential risk of poor assessment conclusions. The utilistion of a multiangle methodological approach (dispersion models, study site locations, algorithms to incorporate short-term concentrations) allowed providing useful information for future studies and policymaking in this field. Accordingly, our findings call for awareness on how the use of a particular dispersion model and its sub-hourly peak calculation method can affect odour impact assessment conclusions and compliance demonstrations.

Odour impact assessment by considering short-term ambient concentrations: A multi-model and two-site comparison

Invernizzi M.;Sironi S.;Capelli L.;
2020-01-01

Abstract

Short-term events are one of the specific aspects that differentiate odour nuisance problems from conventional air quality pollutants. Atmospheric dispersion modelling has been considered the gold standard to realise odour impact assessments and to calculate separation distances. Most of these models provide predictions of concentrations of a pollutant in ambient air on an hourly basis. Even when the hourly mean odour concentration is lower than the perception threshold, concentration peaks above the threshold may occur during this period. The constant peak-to-mean factor is nowadays the most widespread method for evaluating short-term concentrations from the long-term ones. Different approaches have been proposed in the scientific literature to consider non-constant peak-to-mean factors. Two prominent approaches to do so are the i) variable peak-to-mean factor which considers the distance from the source and atmospheric stability and the ii) concentration-variance transport. In this sense, the aim of this work is to compare the results of three different freely available dispersion models (namely, CALPUFF, LAPMOD and GRAL), which implement three distinct ways to evaluate the short-term concentration values. Two sites, one in Austria and the other in Italy, were selected for the investigation. Dispersion model results were compared and discussed both in terms of long-term (hourly) concentrations and short-term. An important outcome of this work is that the dispersion models provided more equivalent results for hourly mean concentrations, in particular in the far-field. On the contrary, the method to evaluate short-term concentrations can deliver disparate results, thereby revealing a potential risk of poor assessment conclusions. The utilistion of a multiangle methodological approach (dispersion models, study site locations, algorithms to incorporate short-term concentrations) allowed providing useful information for future studies and policymaking in this field. Accordingly, our findings call for awareness on how the use of a particular dispersion model and its sub-hourly peak calculation method can affect odour impact assessment conclusions and compliance demonstrations.
2020
Concentration fluctuation
Dispersion modelling
Lagrangian model
Odour
Peak-to-mean
Separation distance
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11311/1150179
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