Despite intracellular molecular dynamics being fundamental to understand pathological, biomechanical or biochemical events, several processes are still not clear because of the difficulty of monitoring and measuring these phenomena. To engineer an effective fluorescent tool useful to improve protein intracellular tracking studies, we fused a supernegative green fluorescent protein, (-30)GFP, to a myogenic transcription factor, MyoD. The (-30)GFP-MyoD was able to pass the plasma membrane when complexed with cationic lipids. Fluorescence confocal microscopy showed the protein delivery in just 3 hours with high levels of protein transduction efficiency. Confocal acquisitions also confirmed the maintenance of the MyoD nuclear localization. To examine how the supernegative GFP influenced MyoD activity, we did gene expression analyses, which showed an inhibitory effect of (-30)GFP on transcription factor function. This negative effect was possibly due to a charge-driven interference mechanism, as suggested by further investigations by molecular dynamics simulations. Summarizing these results, despite the functional limitations related to the charge structural characteristics that specifically affected MyoD function, we found (-30)GFP is a suitable fluorescent label for improving protein intracellular tracking studies, such as nucleocytoplasmic transport in mechanotransduction.

Advantages and limitations of a supernegative GFP in facilitating MyoD intracellular tracking

Boeri L.;Jacchetti E.;Soncini M.;Raimondi M. T.
2020

Abstract

Despite intracellular molecular dynamics being fundamental to understand pathological, biomechanical or biochemical events, several processes are still not clear because of the difficulty of monitoring and measuring these phenomena. To engineer an effective fluorescent tool useful to improve protein intracellular tracking studies, we fused a supernegative green fluorescent protein, (-30)GFP, to a myogenic transcription factor, MyoD. The (-30)GFP-MyoD was able to pass the plasma membrane when complexed with cationic lipids. Fluorescence confocal microscopy showed the protein delivery in just 3 hours with high levels of protein transduction efficiency. Confocal acquisitions also confirmed the maintenance of the MyoD nuclear localization. To examine how the supernegative GFP influenced MyoD activity, we did gene expression analyses, which showed an inhibitory effect of (-30)GFP on transcription factor function. This negative effect was possibly due to a charge-driven interference mechanism, as suggested by further investigations by molecular dynamics simulations. Summarizing these results, despite the functional limitations related to the charge structural characteristics that specifically affected MyoD function, we found (-30)GFP is a suitable fluorescent label for improving protein intracellular tracking studies, such as nucleocytoplasmic transport in mechanotransduction.
fluorescence microscopy; molecular dynamics; MyoD; protein transduction; supernegative GFP
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11311/1136879
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