Cancer is one of the major causes of mortality worldwide and its already large burden is projected to increase significantly in the near future with a predicted 22 million new cancer cases and 13 million cancer-related deaths occurring annually by 2030. Unfortunately, current procedures for diagnosis are characterized by low diagnostic accuracies. Given the proved correlation between cancer presence and alterations of biological fluid composition, many researchers suggested their characterization to improve cancer detection at early stages. This paper reviews the information that can be found in the scientific literature, regarding the correlation of different cancer forms with the presence of specific metabolites in human urine, in a schematic and easily interpretable form, because of the huge amount of relevant literature. The originality of this paper relies on the attempt to point out the odor properties of such metabolites, and thus to highlight the correlation between urine odor alterations and cancer presence, which is proven by recent literature suggesting the analysis of urine odor for diagnostic purposes. This investigation aims to evaluate the possibility to compare the results of studies based on different approaches to be able in the future to identify those compounds responsible for urine odor alteration.

Review and comparison of cancer biomarker trends in urine as a basis for new diagnostic pathways

Bax C.;Sironi S.;Capelli L.
2019-01-01

Abstract

Cancer is one of the major causes of mortality worldwide and its already large burden is projected to increase significantly in the near future with a predicted 22 million new cancer cases and 13 million cancer-related deaths occurring annually by 2030. Unfortunately, current procedures for diagnosis are characterized by low diagnostic accuracies. Given the proved correlation between cancer presence and alterations of biological fluid composition, many researchers suggested their characterization to improve cancer detection at early stages. This paper reviews the information that can be found in the scientific literature, regarding the correlation of different cancer forms with the presence of specific metabolites in human urine, in a schematic and easily interpretable form, because of the huge amount of relevant literature. The originality of this paper relies on the attempt to point out the odor properties of such metabolites, and thus to highlight the correlation between urine odor alterations and cancer presence, which is proven by recent literature suggesting the analysis of urine odor for diagnostic purposes. This investigation aims to evaluate the possibility to compare the results of studies based on different approaches to be able in the future to identify those compounds responsible for urine odor alteration.
2019
Cancer diagnosis; Odor threshold; Olfaction; Urine metabolites; Volatile organic compounds (VOC); Volatiles
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11311/1125633
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