When adipose tissue (AT) is impaired by trauma or disease, AT engineering could provide a shelf-ready structural and functional restoration as alternative to current clinical treatments, which mainly aim at aesthetic replacement. Yet, the lack of an efficient vascular network within the scaffolds represents a major limitation to their translation application in patients. Here, we propose the use of microstructured crosslinked gelatin hydrogels with an embedded prevascular channel as scaffolding materials for AT engineering. The scaffolds are fabricated using – simultaneously – alginate-based microbeads and 3D printed filaments as sacrificial material encapsulated in gelatin at the point of material fabrication and removed post-crosslinking. This method yields the formation of microstructures that resemble the micro-architecture of physiological human fat tissue and of microvessels that can facilitate vascularization through anastomosis with patients’ own blood vessels. The cytocompatible method used to prepare the gelatin scaffolds showed structural stability over time while allowing for cell infiltration and protease-based remodeling/degradation. Scaffolds’ mechanical properties were also designed to mimic the one of natural breast adipose tissue, a key parameter for AT regeneration. Scaffold's embedded channel (∅ = 300–400 µm) allowed for cell infiltration and enabled blood flow in vitro when an anastomosis with a rat blood artery was performed using surgical glue. In vitro tests with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) showed colonization of the porous structure of the gelatin hydrogels, differentiation into adipocytes and accumulation of lipid droplets, as shown by Oil Red O staining. Statement of Significance: The potential clinical use of scaffolds for adipose tissue (AT) regeneration is currently limited by an unmet simultaneous achievement of adequate structural/morphological properties together with a promoted scaffold vascularization. Sacrificial materials, currently used either to obtain a tissue-mimicking structure or hollow channels to promote scaffold’ vascularization, are powerful versatile tools for the fabrication of scaffolds with desired features. However, an integrated approach by means of sacrificial templates aiming at simultaneously achieving an adequate AT-mimicking structure and hollow channels for vascularization is missing. Here, we prove the suitability of crosslinked gelatin scaffolds obtained by using sacrificial alginate microbeads and 3D printed strands to achieve proper features and hollow channels useful for scaffolds vascularization.

Tissue-mimicking gelatin scaffolds by alginate sacrificial templates for adipose tissue engineering

Contessi Negrini, Nicola;Farè, Silvia;
2019-01-01

Abstract

When adipose tissue (AT) is impaired by trauma or disease, AT engineering could provide a shelf-ready structural and functional restoration as alternative to current clinical treatments, which mainly aim at aesthetic replacement. Yet, the lack of an efficient vascular network within the scaffolds represents a major limitation to their translation application in patients. Here, we propose the use of microstructured crosslinked gelatin hydrogels with an embedded prevascular channel as scaffolding materials for AT engineering. The scaffolds are fabricated using – simultaneously – alginate-based microbeads and 3D printed filaments as sacrificial material encapsulated in gelatin at the point of material fabrication and removed post-crosslinking. This method yields the formation of microstructures that resemble the micro-architecture of physiological human fat tissue and of microvessels that can facilitate vascularization through anastomosis with patients’ own blood vessels. The cytocompatible method used to prepare the gelatin scaffolds showed structural stability over time while allowing for cell infiltration and protease-based remodeling/degradation. Scaffolds’ mechanical properties were also designed to mimic the one of natural breast adipose tissue, a key parameter for AT regeneration. Scaffold's embedded channel (∅ = 300–400 µm) allowed for cell infiltration and enabled blood flow in vitro when an anastomosis with a rat blood artery was performed using surgical glue. In vitro tests with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) showed colonization of the porous structure of the gelatin hydrogels, differentiation into adipocytes and accumulation of lipid droplets, as shown by Oil Red O staining. Statement of Significance: The potential clinical use of scaffolds for adipose tissue (AT) regeneration is currently limited by an unmet simultaneous achievement of adequate structural/morphological properties together with a promoted scaffold vascularization. Sacrificial materials, currently used either to obtain a tissue-mimicking structure or hollow channels to promote scaffold’ vascularization, are powerful versatile tools for the fabrication of scaffolds with desired features. However, an integrated approach by means of sacrificial templates aiming at simultaneously achieving an adequate AT-mimicking structure and hollow channels for vascularization is missing. Here, we prove the suitability of crosslinked gelatin scaffolds obtained by using sacrificial alginate microbeads and 3D printed strands to achieve proper features and hollow channels useful for scaffolds vascularization.
2019
3D printing; Adipose tissue engineering; Alginate; Gelatin; Hydrogel; Sacrificial materials; Vascularization; Biotechnology; Biomaterials; Biochemistry; Biomedical Engineering; Molecular Biology
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11311/1079689
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