Background: Personalized surgical instruments (PSI) have gained success in the domain of total knee replacement, demonstrating clinical outcomes similar or even superior to both traditional and navigated surgeries. The key requirement for prototyping PSI is the availability of the digital bony surface. In this paper, we aim at verifying whether the 2D/3D reconstruction of the distal femur, based on statistical shape models (SSM), grants sufficient accuracy, especially in the condylar regions, to support a PSI technique. Methods: Computed tomographic knee datasets acquired on 100 patients with severe cartilage damage were retrospectively considered in this work. All the patients underwent total knee replacement using the PSI-based surgical technique. Eighty out of 100 reconstructed distal femur surfaces were used to build the statistical model. The remaining 20 surfaces were used for testing. The 2D/3D reconstruction process was based on digital reconstructed radiographies (DRRs) obtained with a simulated X-ray projection process. An iterative optimization procedure, based on an evolutionary algorithm, systematically morphed the statistical model to decrease the difference between the DRR, obtained by the original CT dataset, and the DRR obtained from the morphed surface. Results: Over the 80 variations, the first ten modes were found sufficient to reconstruct the distal femur surface with accuracy. Using three DRR, the maximum Hausdorff and RMS distance errors were lower than 1.50 and 0.75 mm, respectively. As expected, the reconstruction quality improved by increasing the number of DRRs. Statistical difference (P < 0.001) was found in the 2 vs 3, 2 vs 4 and 2 vs 5 DRR, thus proving that adding just a single displaced projection to the two traditional sagittal and coronal X-ray images improved significantly the reconstruction quality. The effect of the PSI contact area errors on the distal cut direction featured a maximum median error lower than 2° and 0.5° on the sagittal and frontal plane, respectively. Statistical difference was found (P < 0.0001) in the reconstruction accuracy when comparing SSM built using pathologic with respect to non-pathologic shapes (cadavers), meaning that, to improve the patient-specific reconstruction, the morphologic anomalies, specific to the pathology, must be embedded into the SSM. Conclusions: We showed that the X-ray based reconstruction of the distal femur is reasonable also in presence of pathologic bony conditions, featuring accuracy results similar to earlier reports in the literature that reconstructed normal femurs. This finding discloses the chance of applying the proposed methodology to the reconstruction of bony surfaces used in the PSI surgical approach.

2D/3D reconstruction of the distal femur using statistical shape models addressing personalized surgical instruments in knee arthroplasty: A feasibility analysis

Cerveri, Pietro;Baroni, Guido
2017

Abstract

Background: Personalized surgical instruments (PSI) have gained success in the domain of total knee replacement, demonstrating clinical outcomes similar or even superior to both traditional and navigated surgeries. The key requirement for prototyping PSI is the availability of the digital bony surface. In this paper, we aim at verifying whether the 2D/3D reconstruction of the distal femur, based on statistical shape models (SSM), grants sufficient accuracy, especially in the condylar regions, to support a PSI technique. Methods: Computed tomographic knee datasets acquired on 100 patients with severe cartilage damage were retrospectively considered in this work. All the patients underwent total knee replacement using the PSI-based surgical technique. Eighty out of 100 reconstructed distal femur surfaces were used to build the statistical model. The remaining 20 surfaces were used for testing. The 2D/3D reconstruction process was based on digital reconstructed radiographies (DRRs) obtained with a simulated X-ray projection process. An iterative optimization procedure, based on an evolutionary algorithm, systematically morphed the statistical model to decrease the difference between the DRR, obtained by the original CT dataset, and the DRR obtained from the morphed surface. Results: Over the 80 variations, the first ten modes were found sufficient to reconstruct the distal femur surface with accuracy. Using three DRR, the maximum Hausdorff and RMS distance errors were lower than 1.50 and 0.75 mm, respectively. As expected, the reconstruction quality improved by increasing the number of DRRs. Statistical difference (P < 0.001) was found in the 2 vs 3, 2 vs 4 and 2 vs 5 DRR, thus proving that adding just a single displaced projection to the two traditional sagittal and coronal X-ray images improved significantly the reconstruction quality. The effect of the PSI contact area errors on the distal cut direction featured a maximum median error lower than 2° and 0.5° on the sagittal and frontal plane, respectively. Statistical difference was found (P < 0.0001) in the reconstruction accuracy when comparing SSM built using pathologic with respect to non-pathologic shapes (cadavers), meaning that, to improve the patient-specific reconstruction, the morphologic anomalies, specific to the pathology, must be embedded into the SSM. Conclusions: We showed that the X-ray based reconstruction of the distal femur is reasonable also in presence of pathologic bony conditions, featuring accuracy results similar to earlier reports in the literature that reconstructed normal femurs. This finding discloses the chance of applying the proposed methodology to the reconstruction of bony surfaces used in the PSI surgical approach.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11311/1048316
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